Read about planting actinidia in the article Actinidia: landing - the beginning of all beginnings
Mulching and loosening
Every spring, immediately after the snow melts, the soil around the actinidia is loosened and covered with humus, compost, straw and sawdust, which have lain under the open sky for at least a year. Several times over the summer, soil is poured over the trunks to prevent exposure of the root collar. In autumn, the soil around the plants is not dug up, but carefully loosened to a depth of 3-7 cm.
Watering and feeding
Actinidia need to be watered frequently because the soil around the root collar must be constantly moist. Leaves also need a lot of moisture. The fact is that high humidity is required for the growth and normal development of vines. Therefore, in dry weather, actinidia are sprayed. It is advisable to do this in the morning and in the evening.
In the first half of summer, 1-2 liquid top dressing is carried out with mullein infusion, diluted 1; 10, with green fertilizer from weeds flooded with water and fermented in a barrel or with a solution of chlorine-free mineral fertilizers (for example, 30 g of azofoska per 10 liters of water).
Pruning and shaping
In early spring and during the period of active spring sap flow, pruning of actinidia should not be carried out. Plants weaken due to the outflow of juice and may die. Actinidia are not pruned at the end of summer. At this time, pruning, pinching and mechanical damage to the shoots cause the buds to awaken on the shoots of the current year. The formed young twigs do not have time to ripen and woody, therefore they die after the first frost.
When can you prune? During flowering, immediately after it and in late autumn after leaf fall. During this period, plants are formed and thinned out, weakened and drying out branches are cut out. Frozen ends are removed on the shoots, which, by the way, are better visible not in spring, but in early summer.
The formation of actinidia depends on the region of cultivation, the place of planting and the type of supports. In the middle lane, it is usually grown in the form of a bush on a vertical flat trellis, using a fan formation.
After planting actinidia in a permanent place, 2-4 vertically growing long shoots are selected, these will be the sleeves - the main branches of the fan. The rest are cut to the ground. After leaf fall, the top is removed from the left shoots to the level of the matured wood (or the apical bud, if it has formed).
In the next season, lateral shoots grow from the main shoots. In the summer, the most powerful ones are chosen and tied horizontally to the trellis, directing them in different directions. Pruning and pinching at this time is used to maintain optimal thickening and the desired length of the branches.
In the spring of next year, shortened fruiting shoots of a mixed type are formed. They are tied vertically to the trellis. The next year, from the shoots growing on them, the strongest are again chosen and tied horizontally along the second wire, directing in different directions. Fruiting shoots are shortened every year, leaving 4-5 buds above the topmost berry. Sections are covered with garden pitch.
In the future, pruning is reduced to thinning and removing dead branches. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the specific features of actinidia. In kolomikta and polygamy, fruiting buds of the next season are laid on both shortened and long shoots. If you cut them off, the next year's harvest will be significantly reduced. In argut, fruiting occurs mainly on shortened shoots. Therefore, a more intensive thinning is applied to it in combination with nips and short pruning.
In addition, in actinidia kolomikt from 7-10 years of age, one of the old main branches is replaced with a young strong shoot every year. And in actinidia arguta, the main vine usually serves throughout the life of the plant, it is replaced only in case of mechanical damage or freezing.
Supports and garter
In amateur gardens, for the convenience of caring for plants and collecting fruits, they do not allow vines to climb too high. The recommended trellis height is 3.5 m.
With continuous growth, powerful and durable actinidia vines in one place can produce crops for 50 years or more. Therefore, they need a strong and stable support from metal or reinforced concrete pillars. Between them, 4 rows of galvanized wire are pulled: the first is 50 cm from the ground, the rest after 100 cm.
In the process of growth, the shoots are tied up on one side of the trellis. Twine is used for the garter. The shoots are tied up with a figure eight. By the time the vines grow and, intertwining, wrap around the wire, the twine will disintegrate under the influence of sunlight and will not interfere with the stems from thickening.
The described trellis is well suited for growing actinidia in areas of the middle zone with a temperate climate. Its advantages are in uniform illumination of the branches, ease of caring for vines and soil cultivation. Where winters are very cold, a trellis is better suited, which can be laid on the ground in autumn.
Such a trellis is constructed from a metal corner or pipes, which are inserted into cuttings of larger diameter pipes buried in the ground. Cut through 2-3 through holes and fix with bolts or cotter pins.
In the south, for tall species of actinidia (arguta and purple), more voluminous T, G, and U-shaped trellises are used.
The ripening of the fruits of actinidia kolomikta occurs unevenly, from the end of July and throughout August. Ripe berries are often crumbled. Therefore, it is better to remove the entire crop at one time, when the first berries ripen, put it in boxes and transfer it to the room for ripening. Usually they ripen after 3-5 days, while their quality does not deteriorate.
If the actinidia kolomikta has grown so much that its upper shoots cannot be reached, spread a cloth under the vines and collect the ripe fruits that have fallen from above from it.
Following the kolomikta in late August - early September, the fruits of giralda and arguta ripen. They acquire a rich green color and, gradually softening, become tender, melting in the mouth, with a taste and aroma characteristic of each variety.
In September, the fruits of actinidia polygamy and purple ripen. Polygamy berries first turn yellowish, then various shades of orange. Actinidia purpurea, which has bright purple fruits, ripens later than other species.
Unlike kolomikta, the harvest of these species hardly crumbles. Therefore, their fruits, as a rule, are not ripened, but harvested as they ripen. But if the threat of early autumn frosts looms, it is better to immediately remove the whole harvest. In the room, the fruits will ripen, become soft and fragrant.