Useful information

Dogwood and its fruit varieties

In the family dogwood, or dogwood (Cornaceae), in addition to many decorative winter-hardy shrubs, there is male dogwood (Cornus mas) with edible fruits, known as dogwood.

Under natural conditions, it is found in the undergrowth of the mountain forests of the Caucasus, Crimea, in the south of Ukraine, in southern Europe and Asia Minor. It is a shrub or a low tree, more than 5-6 m high. Ovate shiny whole-edged leaves up to 10 cm long. Before the leaves open, small yellow flowers with yellow bracts, collected in bunches, appear. The fruits are juicy, shiny, oblong, about 3 cm long.

Dogwood, floweringCornel, fruiting in Kaliningrad

Dogwood has decorative forms suitable for gardening varieties:

  • ‘Pyramidalis’ (Pyramidalis) with a preramidal crown shape;
  • 'Aurea' with yellow-green leaves that turn green with age;
  • 'Aurea Elegantissima' - the leaves are creamy, with a red tint and white and spots;
  • 'Variegata' - leaves with white edging; as well as decorative varieties with yellow, white and pink fruits.
Derain male AureaDerain male Variegata

However, more interesting are the large-fruited edible dogwood varieties obtained by S.V. Klimenko (some with co-authors) in Kiev. All varieties are rich in vitamin C 120-193 mg%, anthocyanins in the pulp 98-120 mg%, sugars - 8-12%, pectin substances up to 1.1%, which is important for processing.

For central Russia, early ripening dogwood varieties are the most promising, including Alyosha, Elena, Nikolka and Elegant, as well as varieties from the early-middle group.

  • Variety Alyosha differs in the earliest ripening periods, the fruits are bright yellow with a thin skin, weighing 3.5-5 g.
  • Variety Helena has large fruits of a round-oval shape, dark red, never black, unlike other red-fruited varieties. The taste is sweet (sugar 7.7%), the skin is thin, the flesh is tender. In an overripe state, the fruits crumble, so they are removed on time.
  • Variety Nikolka - one of the earliest varieties. Fruits weighing 5.8-6 g, pear-shaped, slightly flattened, tender flesh, sweet-sour taste.
  • Variety Elegant has fruits of medium size, weighing up to 5 g, bottle-shaped, cherry when fully ripe, and then completely black. The fruits do not crumble and can hang until frost. Sweet and sour taste with aroma.

The early-middle group includes the varieties Bukovinsky, Galitsky Zhelty, Vyshgorodsky, Grenadier, Korallovy, Nezhny, Radost, Slastena and Ugolek.

  • VarietyBukovinsky - with oval-cylindrical yellow fruits weighing 3.5-4 g. Fruit crumbling is insignificant. Productivity and weight of fruits fluctuate depending on weather conditions.
  • Variety Vyshgorodsky especially valuable for fresh use, because fruits ripen early, have a sweet and sour taste, contain a lot of vitamin C (up to 121 mg%), dark cherry, bright red pulp. In dry years, the fruits become smaller, needs watering and care.
  • Variety Grenadier extremely beautiful, the fruits are fragrant, tasty, oval-cylindrical in shape with a narrowed neck, red-black already at the beginning of ripening. Used for processing into jams, preserves, marmalade and candied fruits.
  • Variety Gentle very beautiful, has yellow fruits 3.5 cm long, pear-shaped, in the period of full ripening the seed shines through, the taste is sweet. During the fruiting period, the plant is very elegant.
  • Variety Joy - early ripening, the fruits are dark red, oval-pear-shaped, weighing 5.5 g, the pulp is slightly acidic, red-pink.
Dogwood grade JoyCornelian variety Delicate (in the foreground)

The varieties with medium ripening periods include: Vavilovets, Vladimimrsky, Vydubetsky, Evgeniya, Korallovy Marka, Lukyanovsky, Pervenets, Priorsky, Svetlyachok, Yantarny, etc.

  • Cornelian variety Priorsky
    Variety Amber - with yellow fruits. They are slightly smaller, 15 mm long, barrel-shaped, just like the seed of the Joy variety shows through. The taste is very sweet. It is necessary to harvest without waiting for full ripeness, so that the fruits do not crumble.
  • Variety Firstborn - obtained in 1972, the fruits are one-dimensional, oval-pear-shaped, shiny, from dark red to black, up to 30 mm long, weighing 6.5 g. The pulp is juicy, tender, good taste, the stone is easily separated. The fruits of this variety are the most suitable for processing, they have a little sugar (6.2%), enough pectin substances (0.85%).
  • Variety Firefly - with very large fruits (weighing up to 7.5 g, sometimes up to 8.5-10 g) bottle-shaped. Ripe fruits are reddish-brown with very good adhesion strength. They are stored after harvesting for 3-4 weeks without spoiling. Productivity is high, fruiting every year.
  • Variety Priorsky - fruits are dark red, pear-shaped, weighing up to 5-6 g. The flesh of the fruit is tender, sweet and sour taste. The yield is stable, in Kiev - up to 40 kg per bush. The fruits are weakly crumbled, but ripen late.
  • Variety Vavilovets - with red pear-shaped fruits, weighing 0.6-0.7 g. It is used fresh and for various processing.
  • Variety Evgeniya - has large teardrop-shaped fruits, dark red in color. The pulp is tender, sweet-sour taste. Productivity is high, annual fruiting. The peduncle is firmly attached.
  • Variety Semyon is the most late ripening. It has shiny dark cherry fruits, up to 21 mm long, weighing 0.6-0.7 g. The pulp is dense, well separated from the stone. Fruits are firmly attached, sweet and sour taste, aromatic.
Cornelian variety Semyon

Reproduction of varietal plants dogwood

Dogwood varieties are propagated grafting-budding (plant yield - 90%). Green cuttings dogwoods take root by 70% when treated with growth stimulants (Kornevin or BCI). Cuttings are rooted in greenhouses under glass in well-washed coarse sand, covered with a layer of 3-5 cmon the main substrate from a sod mixture or humus soil with sand. The soil is well watered before planting. Cuttings are planted to a depth of 5 cm, at an angle of 450. Boxes are placed in hotbeds and greenhouses. To protect from direct sunlight, glass in the greenhouse must be whitened or covered with shields. During the rooting period, the temperature is maintained at 20-25 ° C and the high humidity created by a fogging installation or frequent spraying with water. Rooted cuttings are gradually accustomed to fresh air. By the fall, they have a well-developed root system. Plants can be planted in open ground, but in the first winter they need to be covered with a leaf or spruce branches.

To obtain new varieties, dogwood is propagated by seeds that germinate in the spring, most often in the second year. It is necessary to sow "before winter", germination rate is 50-60%. Although dogwood has good winter hardiness, seedlings need shelter in the early years.

Landing

Cornel is planted in the spring in the garden at a distance of 4 m from each other, with a denser planting, the plants will close with crowns and the yield will be lower. For normal development, it is necessary to plant 2-3 mutually pollinated varieties. When planting in autumn, you should have time before the onset of cold weather and plant the plants before mid-October, so that they have time to take root. It is useful to mulch the soil around the plant with sawdust, peat or grass cuttings. The soil needs regular liming. Cornel responds well to feeding and tolerates pruning, which is carried out in early spring, before sap flow begins.

Dogwood Recipes

Cold dogwood soup with nuts and herbs,

Dogwood sauce,

Pickled dogwood "for olives",

Pumpkin with dogwood.