We will not argue about which garlic is better - winter or spring. On this score, each gardener has his own opinion. We will find a middle ground and begin to grow this beautiful vegetable plant in every possible way.
Podzimny (autumn) planting involves the cultivation of winter garlic. This is what we will talk about, especially since it is just now the time to plant him.
We plant in time
The timing of planting can be determined by the weather (even such changeable as in recent years). If spring is early, then autumn, according to long-term observations of the weather, will also be early, and vice versa. For central Russia, garlic is usually planted from September 25 to the first decade of October. Later planting dates, closer to November, are dangerous - the garlic may simply not have time to take root properly, which means it will freeze out. Particularly dangerous are severe frosts (from -10 ° C and below), covering bare, without snow, land, as well as winters with little snow. After all, snow is a blanket, and if it is not there or it is thin, the plants are very cold and may die.
It is dangerous to carry out an early landing, in late August - early September. In this case, the teeth can start growing, and this will greatly weaken their winter hardiness. Greens will die from a sharp drop in temperature, and the teeth themselves will suffer. So it turns out that with a late planting, the harvest will be, but not rich, and with an early one, you will have to plant or completely transplant the winter planting with spring garlic.
For those who, in matters of gardening and horticulture, rely more on the lunar calendar than on the biological characteristics of plant development, planting should be done on the waning moon when it is in the constellations of Pisces, Taurus and Capricorn.
The optimal period for planting winter garlic dry, without soaking, with cloves is the third decade of September, and if the timing is a little late, it's okay. Just soak the teeth in warm water or humate solution for 2-3 hours. Then moisten the moss or sawdust with this solution and sprinkle the cloves with them. Place everything in a warm place in the kitchen or under a radiator. Two days later, the rudiments of roots appear - white pimples on the bottom of the clove. This awakened garlic can be planted until October 15th. And it doesn't matter if the soil is frozen. Remove the frozen crust of the earth, spill the soil with warm water or a pink solution of potassium permanganate and plant the teeth, being careful not to damage the roots. Mulch the planting with dry peat or a mixture of garden soil with sawdust with a layer of 1.5-2 cm. Before the snow, you can cover the bed with roofing material or film, but be sure to remove the shelter - the snow should not fall on the film, but on the soil.
Choosing a place, preparing the ground
If your plot is large enough and you are not saving land, give the garlic a separate bed.
If the ground is tense, you can attach garlic to strawberries - this is called a compacted planting. Strawberries and garlic will not hinder or interfere with each other, these crops go well with each other in one place. But after garlic, onions and potatoes, it is not recommended to plant garlic due to the accumulation of similar pests, diseases and substances that inhibit the development of plants. Garlic over garlic can be planted only after 3-4 years. The best predecessors are legumes, pumpkins, greens and cabbages.
A plot of land for planting needs to be prepared in 10-15 days. Choose a flat, without slope and depressions area, not flooded with ground or flood waters. Dig up 20 cm (on a shovel bayonet), remove rhizome weeds, stones and other debris. Add rotted (biennial) manure, compost or humus at the rate of half a bucket per 1 m2 or, if organic matter was introduced under the predecessor, only phosphorus-potassium fertilizer per 1 m2 (for example, potassium monophosphate - 50-60 g or ash 100-150 g ).
Fresh manure is strictly prohibited! - This is a sure way to kill garlic due to the development of various diseases.After digging and leveling, the soil should settle, and this takes 10-15 days. If the teeth are immediately planted in the dug soil, they will go too deep when the earth subsides, this will delay their rooting, the teeth will experience a lack of air, and in the spring they will spend a lot of energy on germination, which will reduce the yield.
We select high-quality planting material
The teeth suitable for planting should be firm, not soft, free from dents, spots of rot or mold, with an intact outer shell. The bottom should not have cracks. If there is even one clove in the bulb with spots of rot or mold, all the cloves can be infected and therefore unsuitable for planting. The larger the clove, the larger the bulb will be.
Do not peel off the outer shell - this way you expose the clove, it becomes more susceptible to all unfavorable factors, and the bulb grown from the bare clove will be poorly stored. If the cloves of the bulb vary greatly in size, have a double top or double, accrete - this indicates degeneration, there will not be a good harvest from such planting material, reject such cloves and take care of updating the variety.
If there is little planting material, decontaminate it. Of course, there is no one hundred percent guarantee, and yet disinfection will not be superfluous. You can disinfect for 25-30 minutes in a 1% solution of copper sulfate (1 teaspoon without top for 1 liter of hot water) or for 1-2 hours in ash liquor. It will heal the chives from garlic mites and nematodes, as well as nourish them with minerals. How to prepare it, read the article "Whitewashing trees - important and necessary", in the topic "The second stage - disinfection of the bark".
We plant correctly
Actually, how to plant garlic - in orderly rows or in a semicircle, in grooves, in a scatter or in the form of inscriptions and figures, everyone decides for himself. But there are planting rules that you need to know and adhere to for best results.
Basic landing rules:
- The planting depth should be 2 tooth heights. This means that if the height is, for example, 3 cm, then we plant it to a depth of 6 cm.Therefore, to facilitate planting and get friendly shoots in spring, calibrate the teeth by size before planting.
- The distances between the cloves are different - large ones are planted 12-15 cm apart, small ones after 8-10 cm.
- The distance between the rows is 20-25 cm, so that it is convenient to weed, loosen, feed.
- If you land in grooves, ash or sand can be poured onto the bottom - this reduces the risk of rotting of the bottom.
- It is undesirable to press the cloves into the soil, because then the probability of their bulging is high - the growing roots push the clove to the surface (by the way, the same happens when planting onion sets). Such raised teeth will freeze slightly.
- After planting, the soil surface must be leveled and mulched with dry peat or garden soil with sawdust with a layer of 1.5-2 cm.
We plant large teeth in order to obtain bulbs in the beds according to the above scheme. Do not throw out small teeth, but plant them to obtain vitamin greens under trees (in tree-trunk circles clean from grass), under berry and ornamental shrubs. Do not be afraid, in the openwork penumbra under the crown of a tree or shrub, the greens turn out to be tender, does not coarse for a long time, and if it is reasonable to apply fertilizers, then there will be no increased nitrate content. This garlic does not need to be dug up annually. A few years later, a nest of small onion-apples forms from each clove, they produce greens until the end of June. And in early July, when the milk ripeness of the bulbs comes, they can be added to salads or pickled.
Landing is complete. If in winter you are in the country, throw a snowball on the garlic planting a couple of times during the whole winter, warm it up. It is especially important to carry out such a simple but effective insulation in winters with little snow and in winters with strong winds.
Successful planting and good harvest!