Sansevieria three-lane (Sansevieria trifasciata) - the most common type of sansevier in indoor floriculture. Due to its unpretentiousness, it is widely used for landscaping offices and other public places. For this plant such names as Pike Tail, Mother-in-law's Tongue are firmly entrenched, in the West it is often called the Snake Plant or Snake Skin for the peculiar color of the leaves.
This is one of the species of a large genus; other species can be found on the Sansevieria page.
Three-lane sansevieria has up to 6 leaves in a rosette. The mature leaves of the original species are dark green with light transverse stripes. The length of the leaves can reach 30-120 cm, the width is 2-10 cm. The leaf is flat, lanceolate, smooth, gradually tapering upwards and ends with a thorn. The edge of the leaf is green. The color of the leaves is influenced by the intensity of illumination - leaves that develop in bright light have bright stripes, in conditions of lower illumination the leaf acquires a uniform dark green color, the stripes become indistinct.
Over many years of cultivation, many varieties with different colors, sizes and shapes of leaves were selected from the original species:
- Laurenti (Laurentii) is an old variety that still remains the most widespread and popular, it also became the progenitor of many other cultivars. The leaves grow vertically upward, along the edge of the leaf there is a clear yellow stripe, its width and location may vary slightly.
- Sensation Bentle, or White sansevier (Sensation Bantel, Bantel's Sensation) is a variety selected by Gustav Bentl in 1948 as a Laurenti sport. Its distinctive feature is the presence of white longitudinal stripes that alternate with dark green ones. The leaves are straight and tough, but slightly shorter than those of the wild. Leaves with wide green stripes may show a species-specific transverse striation. The rarity of this variety is due to its slow growth rate.
- Hanni (Hahnii) is a sport from the Laurenti variety, was discovered and soon patented by S. Khan in 1941. This variety is distinguished by dark green, short, curved leaves that form a vase-shaped rosette.
- Golden Hanni (Golden Hahnii) was patented in 1953 by S. Khan. The rosette of leaves is similar to the previous variety, its distinctive feature is the presence of irregular longitudinal yellow stripes. It grows rather slowly.
- Silver Hanni (Silver Hahnii) was selected as a sport from the Hanni variety and patented by S. Khan in 1953. Almost identical in growth form to the Hanni variety, but the leaves are silvery-gray-green with indistinct transverse stripes and dark edging.
- Hanni Christata (Hahnii Cristata) is a crested variety, similar in leaf shape to the Hanni variety.
- Futura (Futura) - Outwardly similar to Laurenti, but with wider and shorter leaves, the yellow stripe is usually thinner. This is a fairly new variety, but already very popular.
- Robusta (Robusta) - resembles Futura, but without yellow stripes along the edge of the leaf. The color of the leaf resembles a wild look.
- Moonshine (Moonshine) - is a relatively new variety, similar in leaf shape and growth pattern to Futura and Robusta varieties, but the leaves are gray-green, silvery.
- Nelson (Nelsonii) - is a sport from the Laurenti variety, was patented by O. Nelson in 1944. Dark green leaves with a velvety sheen grow straight up. The leaves are shorter, thicker and more numerous in the rosette than the original species. The variety is slow-growing, and retains its characteristics only when propagated by dividing rhizomes, when propagated by leaf cuttings, it gives plants of the original species.
- Silver Queen (Silver Queen) - similar in growth style to the original form. Young leaves are almost completely silvery-gray with a thin dark edging.
- Compact (Compacta) - is a descendant of the Laurenti variety and resembles it in appearance, but the leaves are shorter and thinner. The center of the leaf is very dark, and there is also a yellow stripe along the edge. Sometimes some leaves tend to curl, which gives additional decorative effect to the plant. The growth rate is slower than that of the original species. To preserve the variety, it propagates only by dividing the rhizomes; when grown from leaf cuttings, plants of the original species are usually formed, sometimes specimens resembling the Nelson variety grow.
- Twisted Sister (Twisted Sister) - forms a low rosette of twisted olive green leaves with a dark green speck with a yellow border.
This is just a small part of the varieties that are currently bred and already widely distributed among collectors. Like the Laurenti variety, any of them can serve as the basis for the development of all new varieties. Despite the wide variety of varieties and species, they all have approximately the same care requirements.
In content, this is a rather simple and unpretentious plant, it is easy to grow it even for novice florists. The plant can grow in bright light and in the shade, withstands a large temperature range, and can easily do without watering for a long time. But still, with proper care, the leaves of the sansevieria become denser, the features of variegated forms appear in all their glory.
Illumination indoors can range from intense light to partial shade and shade. But bright light is preferable for sansevieria, it will contribute to the formation of strong healthy leaves and beautiful color. With a lack of light, the leaves acquire a dark green color, the brightness of variegated forms is lost, growth slows down or stops altogether. However, variegated varieties should still not be kept in direct midday sun.
Temperature. Sansevieria can withstand both hot and cool conditions, but it is undesirable for the temperature to drop below + 14 + 16 ° C. In winter, it is necessary to carefully monitor that the leaves of the plant do not touch the cold window, the frosty air does not get on the plant when airing - lowering the temperature even to + 5 ° C causes hypothermia, decay and death of the plant. The lower the temperature of the content, the less often and less abundant watering should be.
Watering in the life of sansevierium is of great importance. It should be remembered that this is a succulent plant, it stores water in its tissues, and excessive watering will lead to decay and death of the plant. It tolerates long periods of drought rather calmly, but with insufficient watering, the leaves begin to wilt. Watering should be moderate, the soil should dry completely between waterings. The frequency and abundance of watering directly depends on the illumination and temperature in the room. The lower the illumination, the less often the plant should be watered. Water only on top of the pot, avoiding water getting into the center of the outlet.
Read more in the article Watering rules for indoor plants.
Air humidity does not play any role for sansevieria, these plants are adapted to the dry air of savannahs.
Priming must be well drained throughout; for this, approximately 30% of sand must be added to the universal soil.
Top dressing. During the growing season, plants should be fed with cactus fertilizers. If the sansevier is in the shade or the temperature of the content is low, then feeding should be reduced or completely canceled. An excess of fertilizers can cause rotting of the plant, loss of varietal characteristics, and deformation of the leaves.
Transfer only required when the pot gets cramped, every few years. Powerful rhizomes are capable of breaking the pot. When choosing dishes, preference should be given to wide and shallow pots, since the roots and rhizomes grow in breadth without going deep.
Read more in the article Transplanting indoor plants.
Sanseviers are propagated in spring or summer by vegetative methods - by dividing rhizomes or leaf cuttings.
Variegated and some other varieties should be propagated only by dividing the rhizomes to preserve the traits. When propagated by leaf cuttings, the characteristics of the variety are often lost and young plants of a natural species grow, lose their variegation.
The rhizome is divided with a sharp knife so that each division has a growth point and a rosette of leaves. Delenki are seated in separate pots, sprinkling the wounds with coal, in a sandy substrate. At first, water is very limited. After rooting, several new shoots and new rosettes of leaves are formed from each piece of rhizome.
For propagation by leaf cuttings, a healthy leaf is cut across into 5 cm fragments, the sections are dried in air, then the lower cut is treated with Kornevin and buried 1-2 cm into sterile, slightly wet sand or a mixture of sand and peat. It is not necessary to put in a greenhouse, high humidity can cause rot. The light is bright, diffused, the temperature is about + 20 + 25 ° C. Rooting lasts about 6-8 weeks, after which young shoots begin to grow.
Possible growing problems
- Leaves turn yellow and soften - the plant began to rot due to waterlogging of the soil or water ingress into the center of the outlet. The plant can only be saved by removing all rotten parts, treating it with a fungicide against fungal diseases, drying it and transplanting it into fresh sandy soil.
- Leaves soften without losing color - the plant is frozen. Remove all affected parts, sprinkle the cuts with charcoal, replant, if the underground part of the plant is also affected, change the conditions.
- Dark brown spots on the leaves - the plant does not have enough light, the soil is waterlogged, the plant is sunburned or overcooled. Cut off damaged leaves, change conditions.
- White dry spots on the leaves - the plant got sunburn. It should be taught to the direct sun gradually, especially after a long stay in a dark place.
- Pests. Sanseviers are often affected by scale insects and mealybugs, and spider mites can also be affected.