Useful information

Seedlings of cauliflower: sowing and care

The general principle for preparing seeds, soil and growing cauliflower seedlings is the same as for white cabbage (see Sowing white cabbage and caring for seedlings). Below, only the individual features of cauliflower agricultural technology will be considered in detail.

Sprouts of cauliflower

The approximate age of cauliflower seedlings for central Russia:

  • for early varieties and hybrids - 25-60 days,
  • for mid-early - 35-40 days,
  • for late - 30-35 days.

Sowing seeds is carried out:

  • early varieties and hybrids - from 5 to 30 March,
  • medium early - from April 10 to May 10,
  • late - from May 25 to June 10.

Dates for planting seedlings in open ground:

  • early varieties and hybrids - from April 25 to May 15,
  • medium early - from May 20 to June 15,
  • late - from July 1 to July 10.

Such an age "spread" when growing seedlings of early varieties and hybrids is not accidental. To receive the earliest finished products from the end of June or the first days of July in the open field, the maximum possible age of seedlings is required - 50-60 days. It is planted in late April, early May, often under a temporary cover with a film. This seedling is grown only in a pot method for better survival. Then comes the time of 40-45 day old cabbage seedlings, which take root more easily and can potentially give a higher yield. But to achieve the maximum yield of early ripening varieties and hybrids is possible only when planting 20-25 day old seedlings, here the largest heads of high quality are obtained.

Unlike white cabbage, cauliflower has a less developed root system. This cabbage is even more moisture-loving and demanding on soil fertility. The bulk of the roots is located in the 25-40 cm soil layer. For growing seedlings, it is better to use the potting method without picking. However, it was noticed that with early spring and spring planting, seedlings grown with a pick and without a pick, in the future, give almost the same yield. But with the summer period of planting seedlings, the potting method without picking has a significant advantage, especially in dry season. Plants take root better and develop a more powerful root that goes deep into the soil.

For spring-summer and summer-autumn crops with growing for winter, you can use the potless method of growing seedlings. For the Moscow region, the optimal sowing time is from the end of April to June. For growing by winter, crops are carried out in 2-3 stages from mid-June to July 10. For better survival, seedlings are planted at a younger age with 3-4 true leaves.

In the northern regions, due to the shorter warm period, it is more expedient to grow older cauliflower seedlings, 50-60 days old. In this case, the feeding area of ​​one plant should be slightly increased to 7x7 or 8x8 cm.

During the cultivation of seedlings, there should be no stops in growth, otherwise there is a danger of shooting. This is especially common in early cabbage when planting adult seedlings.

Seedlings of cauliflower

 

Seedless growing method for the south

For dry areas, you can also use the less common seedless growing method. In this case, the root system turns out to be not so branched, but more deeply penetrating into the soil. Seeds are sown directly into the ground with a row spacing of 45-60 cm, depending on the characteristics of the variety or hybrid and soil fertility. When the first two true leaves appear, thinning is carried out, leaving 10-15 cm between plants in a row. The final thinning is done in the phase of 5-6 leaves, leaving 15-20 cm between plants on highly fertile soils, 20-25 cm on less fertile soils. should be carried out with well-watered soil. If this event is carried out carefully, the plucked-out plants retain the root system well enough and the best of them can be planted in the places of dead plants or on another plot.

Care during the growing period

Since cauliflower is a very moisture-loving plant, the optimum soil moisture throughout the entire growing period should be in the range of 70-85%. It is very important not to allow the soil to dry out during the seedling period, as this leads to the formation of a shallow head or even to a complete loss of yield due to the rapid transition of plants to the flowering phase.

Seedlings of cauliflower

An equally important factor is compliance with temperature conditions. During the period of growing seedlings, the temperature should not be allowed to drop below + 8 ° C for a long time, 10 or more days. Otherwise, a rapid transition of the plant to the flowering phase may occur, without the formation of a dense marketable head. A temperature above + 20 ° C for 10 or more days, especially at night, provokes the stretching of seedlings and the formation of small, loose, rapidly disintegrating heads.

The optimum temperature before emergence is +21 ... + 23 ° C, then +10 ... + 12 ° C for 5 days. After the seedlings get stronger and become stocky, the temperature is gradually increased to +16 ... + 18оС in sunny weather and +13 ... + 15оС in cloudy weather. At night, the temperature is maintained within the range of +10 ... + 12оС.

As already mentioned, cauliflower is more demanding on nutrition than white cabbage. This must be taken into account from the very beginning, i.e. at the stage of growing seedlings. With a lack of trace elements in the seedling period (especially when grown in a pot method without picking), regardless of the conditions for further cultivation, cabbage forms ugly heads or does not form them at all. It is especially sensitive to the lack of boron and molybdenum.

With a lack of molybdenum, cabbage grows deformed leaves and does not proceed to the formation of a head.

With a lack of boron, glassy spots are formed on the heads, which become brown in color. Under these spots, voids are soon formed up to the stump itself, covered with a black crust on the inside.

To avoid such troubles, during the period when the first true leaf appears in the seedlings, it is watered directly over the leaves with a complex fertilizer containing trace elements.

Some literary sources say that when feeding cauliflower seedlings, the doses of mineral fertilizers per feeding are increased by 1.5 times compared to the doses for white cabbage seedlings. During the growing period (depending on the age of the finished seedlings), 2-3 additional fertilizing is given to her. Here I will take the liberty of disagreeing. To obtain a more uniformly developed seedlings and tissues in plants, it is still better to carry out 1-2 additional fertilizing with a solution of normal concentration, simply shortening the time period between fertilizing a little. For 30-day seedlings, 2 dressings are enough, 35-40 days - 3, 45-50 days - 4, for 55-60 days - 5.

The first feeding is given 10 days after the pick, or in the phase of the first two true leaves with a potless method of growing seedlings. The second and subsequent feeding is given at intervals of 10 days. Regardless of the age of the seedlings, the final feeding is given 3-4 days before planting in open ground. It is best to alternate organic and mineral supplements with each other.

In addition to the main dressings, cabbage is made 3 foliar dressings with microelements. The first - in the phase of 1-2 true leaves, the second - in the phase of 5-6 true leaves, and the third - when the cabbage forms a head the size of a walnut. For 1 liter of water, 0.5 tablets of trace elements or 0.5 h / l of complete fertilizer with trace elements are diluted and the plants are sprayed on the leaf. Depending on the age of the plants, the consumption of the working solution is 30-60 ml / m2 (3-6 l / one hundred square meters). You can use liquid micronutrient fertilizers for these purposes, for example, "Uniflor micro", "MicroFe" or others. If complex fertilizers with microelements are used for the main feeding, then additional feeding with microelements can be omitted.

First feeding.

For 10 liters of water: 10 g of ammonium nitrate, 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium fertilizer. Consumption: 150-200 ml per pot, or 8-10 l / m2 for potless cultivation.

Second and subsequent feeding any of the following solutions:

  • For 10 liters of water: 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 50 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium fertilizer.
  • For 10 liters of water: 0.5 liters of mullein or chicken droppings.

Consumption: 150-200 ml per pot, or 8-10 l / m2 for potless cultivation.

In the absence of mullein and chicken manure, you can buy dry granular chicken manure, liquid extract of cow dung "Biud", or liquid extract of horse manure "Biud", "Bucephal", "Kaury" in stores.

Top dressing before planting seedlings: for 10 liters of water: 30 g of ammonium nitrate, 80 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium fertilizer.

If the seedlings are well developed, then you can give such a solution: for 10 liters of water, 40 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium fertilizer.

Consumption: 150-200 ml per pot or 8-10 l / m2 for potless cultivation.

When growing seedlings in a potless way (for example, in seedling boxes without internal partitions between plants), the soil between the plants is cut along and across the rows 3-5 days before planting. This technique in combination with the above "feeding before planting seedlings" contributes to the formation of a branched root system.

Literature:

1. Cabbage. // Book series "Household farming". M. "Rural nov", 1998.

(2) Matveev V.P., Rubtsov M.I. Vegetable growing. M .: Agropromizdat, 1985.431 p.

3.Andreev Yu.M., Golik S.V. Cultivation of cauliflower using growth regulators // Bulletin of the vegetable grower. 2011. No. 4. S. 13-20.