Continuation. The beginning is in the article Sacred Ziziphus: The Living Book of Names
On the basis of the present zizyphus, most of the cultivated varieties were bred, which are divided into two groups according to the size of the fruits - small and large-fruited.
Chinese, Central Asian, Krasnodar and Crimean biologists were engaged in the selection of unabi. Unabi are divided into three groups according to the ripening time of the crop: early, middle, late.
From trees of early varieties, they begin to harvest at the end of August, and end in September. These dates are mostly small to medium sized. Large-fruited early varieties are very rare.
- Vakhsh - the variety was bred by Tajik breeders. The tree is vigorous, up to 4–5 m tall, with a pyramidal crown, medium-sized fruits, weighing up to 18 g, ripen in mid-September. They resemble a cylinder in shape, the skin is light chocolate in color. The variety has a high yield.
- Chinese60 - one of the smallest varieties of unabi. Crown diameter - no more than one and a half meters, height - up to 3 m. Fruits are elongated, slightly pointed at the top and bottom, small and medium-sized, weighing up to 12 g, covered with a brown-plum skin. It tastes sweet with sourness. Harvest is ready to be harvested in mid-September.
- Candy - This variety of Ziziphus gives stable and high yields by mid-September. The tree is low, with a spherical crown. Enters fruiting early (in the 2-3rd year). The yield is regular. The fruits are small, weighing only 6–8 g, but there are usually so many of them that no greenery is visible. The thin, brick-red skin covers the very sweet and juicy flesh.
- Maury Jer - the result of the work of Moldovan breeders. The tree is medium in size, the fruits are large, weighing up to 35 g, elongated-cylindrical. Ripeness is gaining by the second decade of September. The plant can withstand temperatures as low as -25 ° C.
- Sinit - the variety was bred by scientists of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden. A tree of medium height with a branched crown. The fruit is oblong-rounded in shape. The color of the fruit is dark brown, the peel is thin, hard, and shiny. Fruits are medium-sized, weighing up to 6 g, but ripen at a record early date. Cinita is harvested in late August or early September. The stone is small, sour-sweet, the pulp is hidden under a brown strong skin. The fruits are good fresh, suitable for drying and canning.
- Ta-Yan-Zao (other names - Lang, Chinese 1) is a large-fruited variety that ripens in the second half of September. This unabi from China is one of the first cultivars. The tree is vigorous, spreading, thornless. Begins to bear fruit in the 2-3rd year. The fruits are large, the average weight is 15 g, the maximum is 35 g. In shape, they are similar to miniature pears, yellowish or brown with a red tint. The taste is sweet, the pulp contains up to 35% sugar. Very often the fruit has no bone or it is poorly developed. The yield is average. Ta-Yan-Zao is very sensitive to moisture. Due to rainy weather, the fruits become too juicy and cracked. The fruits are mainly suitable for the production of candied fruits and dried fruits.
- Date - is considered the best variety in terms of taste. Fruits are long, up to 3-4 cm, brown, in the shape of a cylinder. The pulp is sweet, greenish in color. The fruits ripen in mid-September. The only drawback of the variety is that the crop must be harvested immediately, otherwise the heavy fruits will crumble.
- Khurman - one of the most productive and at the same time large-fruited varieties of unabi. From flowering to ripening, an average of 80 days pass. Fruit collection takes 2-3 weeks. The warmer and sunnier the summer was, the sweeter this Chinese date will be.
- Southerner - the author of this variety is the breeder Massover B.L. The tree grows up to 4 m. The tree is medium-sized, thornless. The crown is spreading. Pale brown large fruits weighing up to 20 g, slightly resembling a pear in appearance.The pulp is loose, mealy, slightly dry, but the taste is pleasant, sweet, with a slight sourness. The variety has a good yield. The fruits are used mainly for the production of canned food, they are stored after drying for several months.
Zizyphus of these varieties reach full ripeness at the very end of September or October. They produce medium to large fruits. Low temperature resistance for most of these varieties is average.
- Absheron - the variety was bred by Krasnodar breeders. They managed to create a fruitful and frost-resistant enough variety of ziziphus for their region. The average weight of the fruits is 6–8 g. They are chocolate brown in color and resemble real dates. The pulp is tender, vanilla in color, the taste is bright, combining sweetness and slight sourness. The full ripeness of the fruits occurs by the second half of October.
- friendship is one of the newest unabis. The fruits are not the largest, the usual weight is 10-15 g. The shape of the fruits is pear-shaped, the color is unusual - plum-chocolate. The yield is low. The peculiarity of the variety is that its resistance to frost is slightly above average.
- Chinese 2A (or 52) is a proven variety with almost a century of history, it is well known in the world. From China first came to America, and only then to Russia. The beautiful small, rounded crown makes it possible to grow this variety of Ziziphus both outdoors and in a pot. Large, weighing up to 25 g, the fruits ripen by the end of October. When ripe, oval-elongated dates acquire a rich chestnut color. The light pulp is juicy and sweet. The sourness in the taste is weak.
- Tasty - trees of this variety of ziziphus grow very quickly. The fruits are large, up to 35 g in weight, ripen in October or November. Under the light brown skin there is a sweet creamy flesh. Productivity and frost resistance are average.
- Firstborn - large-fruited variety. The yield is high and regular. Fruits weighing 10-20 g, barrel-shaped, brown. The pulp is greenish, medium juicy, dense. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour, pleasant.
- Soviet - a variety of medium ripening bred by botanists of Tajikistan, spread in Central Asia. Now you can buy it in Russian nurseries. The tree is vigorous, thornless. It has the longest fruitful shoots (up to 62 cm). Elongated-rounded fruits weigh on average 15–20 g. Fruits are light brown in color. The shape of the fruit is oblong-oval or barrel-shaped, sometimes with a noticeable interception in the middle. The pulp is of a delicate consistency, harmonious taste, the fruits are very sweet, the sourness is almost imperceptible. The disadvantage of the variety is that with high humidity during ripening or late harvest, the fruits may crack. Overripe fruits are suitable only for canning.
- Tavrika Is a very popular variety of ziziphus, which ripens in October. Fruits are spherical or similar to barrels, average weight 12-16 g. Skin color is orange-chestnut. Pulp with a characteristic pleasant taste. This variety is distinguished not only by good resistance to frost, but also by increased productivity.
- Shirvan - the variety was bred in Central Asia. Fruits are small, average weight 3.5 g, barrel-shaped. The color of the skin is pale brown, the flesh is dense, milky-chocolate, sour-sweet. The variety gives high yields.
- I-Zao - this Chinese variety cannot boast of large fruits, their weight is usually no more than 7 g. But its advantage is abundant harvests. The tree is vigorous, thornless, spreading. By mid-October, its branches are hung with fruits, the color of which gradually becomes chestnut. The fruit is elongated, tapering towards the top. The pulp is greenish, juicy, sweet, with a slight sourness. The variety is suitable for fresh use, good for harvesting.
There are not so many late varieties of Ziziphus. They are not widespread because they are harvested in late autumn. Fruits begin to ripen at the end of October, and harvest ends in November, and sometimes in December.It happens that a tree completely sheds its foliage, the first snow falls, and the fruits have not yet been harvested. Of course, such a tree looks elegant and original. But only gardeners living in the hot south can afford such a luxury.
- Kara-Dag - a variety bred in Crimea, therefore, it is especially suited to local natural conditions. It tolerates dry summers and slightly frosty winters without any problems. The fruits are large, pear-shaped, their weight can reach 35 g, ripen by October-November.
- Koktebel - another unabi variety with Crimean registration. Breeders of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden can be proud of their pet. Unabi Koktebel is a beautiful strong tree. It begins to bear fruit in the 3rd year after planting. Fruiting is regular. The fruits grow not just large, but huge, they gain weight up to 50 g. Fruits are round, irregular in shape. Pistachio-white flesh is hidden behind the orange-brown skin. It is not too juicy, but with a delicate sweet-sour taste. But the harvest begins to ripen by the end of October, so this variety is not very suitable for more northern regions. The yield of this variety is amazing. The authors of the variety assure that up to 80 kg of fruit can be harvested from an adult plant!
To date, among the studied varieties and forms of ziziphus by large-fruited the following varieties are in the lead: Koktebel, Ta-yang-tszao, Pervenets, Chinese 2A, Soviet, Yuzhanin, Vakhsh 40-5. By yield: Chinese 60, Chinese 93, Chinese 45, Chinese 50, Burnim, Vakhsh 40-5, Soviet, Southerner, Ya-tszao, Zhu-tao-tszao, Da-bai-tszao, Vakhsh 30-16, Firstborn, Azeri, Nasimi.
By a complex of economically valuable features (early ripening, medium and large fruit sizes with good taste, high and regular yield), the following varieties and forms stand out: Koktebel, Chinese 2A, Burnim, Vakhsh 40-5, Soviet, Yuzhanin, Pervenets, Chinese 60, Chinese 93, Chinese 45, Ta-Yang-Zao.
Continuation - in the articles:
- Growing ziziphus on the site and in a pot
- Useful properties of present ziziphus