Useful information

Monarda in folk and scientific medicine

The medicinal raw material of all types of monarda is the aboveground part. It is cut at the very beginning of flowering. During this period, the plants are very fragrant, and this is due to the high content of essential oil. It is best to dry raw materials in the shade, in the attic or other well-ventilated area. It is better to cut the coarse and thick stems by cutting. There is practically no medical value from them, they will only complicate the preparation of fees and infusions in the future. It is not worthwhile to grind the raw material too much - the essential oil glands in the monarda, like in all representatives of the lacustrine family, are located very superficially and when they are damaged, oil evaporates, which reduces the quality of raw materials. The yield of green mass, which is cut during mass flowering, is 2-2.5 kg / m2.

Monarda essential oil

All aerial parts of the plant contain up to 3% essential oil (EO), however, it is concentrated mainly in the leaves and inflorescences, and there is little of it in the stems, no more than 0.06-0.08%. Double monard (Monarda didyma) contains oil with a light yellow or red-brown color and a sweetish balsamic lavender scent. It consists of many components, the ratio of which changes depending on the phase of development, the origin of the population and of course the species. However, monarda oil always contains phenols (thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene), sabinene, cineole, terpinene, limonene, myrcene. Therefore, the smell of the oil most often resembles thyme or oregano. The exception is lemon monard (Monarda citriodora), which got its name from its corresponding smell.

Double monardMonard point

Double monard (Monarda didyma) in medicine in North America was used on a par with point monard(Monarda punctata) for colds for inhalation, for rheumatism, as a mild laxative, antimicrobial, antispasmodic for spasms and colic, as well as improving local blood circulation.

Monarda fistus (Monarda fistulosa) in North America it is cultivated under the name “wild bergamot”. The plant contains vitamin C, B1, B2. The herb has a spicy aroma reminiscent of pepper due to the presence of thymol and carvocrol in the oil, and a bitter taste. On its basis, the “Shashlichnaya” pepper seasoning for meat dishes has been developed, which has a spicy aroma with pepper tones and a sharp-burning taste.

Monarda lemon (Monarda citriodora) in leaves and inflorescences contains 0.75-0.85% EO with a pleasant lemon-resinous aroma. EO contains carvacrol and thymol (up to 50%), limonene. Of interest for the perfumery and cosmetic industry, the plants of the best examples of lemon monarda grown in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden have a pleasant harmonious floral-spicy scent with thyme and citrus tones and a delicate floral note. Whole dry and fresh plants, cut during the flowering phase, are used as a spice in the production of vermouth. It can be used in medicine as an antiseptic.

It is a highly decorative species with abundant flowering, characterized by early maturity, blooming in the year of sowing; great morphological stability; narrow lanceolate leaves; resistant to powdery mildew, but not wintering in the suburbs.

Studies have been carried out on the antimicrobial efficacy of essential oils of aromatic plants, including monarda. Compositions of EO Monarda Puffa with oils of other spicy-aromatic plants are very effective and promising for use in the production of meat products as preservatives.

In general, monarda can be in demand as a natural flavoring agent, preservative and antioxidant both in the food and in the alcoholic beverage industry.

At home, monarda can be a useful addition to the composition of various dishes, seasonings and drinks - here are some recipes: Salad with monarda and onions, Apple jam with monarda, Juice from monarda with nettle for meat or fish, Fruit vinegar with monarda, Cheese ( curd) filling for pies with monarda and chard leaves, boiled beans with monarda, oatmeal porridge with monarda, Tea with monarda.

Studied, among other extracts, concentrated aromatic monards from plant raw materials as fragrant biologically active additives for cosmetic preparations and household chemical products in aerosol packaging. Monarda essential oil is used in the production of creams and balms by the well-known Russian cosmetics company Mirra. These cosmetics do not contain artificial preservatives, and essential oils play their role.

Medicinal properties of monarda

Monarda fistus

Modern research on the medicinal properties of monarda is quite active. Quite a lot of pharmacologically significant possibilities of this plant have been revealed.

Monarda acts as a mild antihelminthic agent, and unlike others (santonin wormwood, citrine wormwood or synthetic drugs) does not cause poisoning in case of an overdose. The most important feature of monarda is the stimulation of cardiac activity and the ability to relieve cardiac neuroses, which is explained by the content of flavonoids and vitamin C in the leaves and flowers. Anthocyanins have a diuretic effect, and also strengthen the walls of the capillaries and expand the coronary vessels of the heart.

The Yalta Research Institute of Physical Methods of Treatment and Medical Climatology tested and received copyright certificates for the use of EO Monarda Puffa as a radioprotective agent, for the treatment of bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and tracheitis, as a means of promoting the engraftment of foreign tissues, and as a blood preservative. The presence of flavonoid substances in essential oil, which have a strong antiseptic and anti-inflammatory effect, explains its effectiveness against various pathogens (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc.).

Despite the existing fairly wide range of immunomodulators, the use of volatile EOs, including monarda, in this capacity seems justified due to their inherent mild prolonged immunomodulatory effect and the almost complete absence of side reactions in the range of low (natural) concentrations used.

There is evidence that when the environment of an isolated room was saturated with natural dosages of volatile fractions of EM, a decrease in the level of microflora of air and condensate of atmospheric moisture was noted. V.V. Nikolaevsky et al. (1988) found that essential oils of monarda, lavender, etc. affect the functional activity of T-lymphocytes. EO monarda activates the function of the bursa of the thymus and spleen in case of their incomplete accidental involution, which causes immunodeficiency in broilers.

The use of EM Monarda for the treatment of diseases of the bronchopulmonary system is of particular interest. The results obtained at the Adyghe State University and the Tomsk Medical Institute showed the high antimicrobial properties of EM Monarda and the possibility of using it for aerating the air of classrooms, classrooms, cinemas, medical, children's and other public premises, especially during outbreaks of influenza and other colds. It was effective against protozoa - trichonosomes, amoeba.

Monarda double normalizes the cycle with dysfunctions in young women, is contraindicated in pregnancy.

Monarda fistus

Genus Monarda very promising as a source of antifungal substances active against representatives of three genera of molds (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor), which can release mycotoxins and thereby poison food, as well as against pathogens of fungal diseases, in particular Trichophytonmentagrophytes, causing shingles in humans and ringworm in animals.

Monarda essential oil is used to treat burns, eczema, and hair loss. For treatment, you can take pure essential oil, as well as infusion, juice and gruel from leaves and inflorescences. Baths also promote healing of wounds, ulcers, eczema.Monarda helps well with acne, seborrhea, peeling of the skin.

Monarda and its oil proved to be promising for the creation of special recreational areas, which were at hospitals, clinics and some children. A significant improvement in the indoor air environment can be achieved by using plant species for their "greening", the volatile emissions of which have pronounced phytoncidal properties, i.e. able to suppress vital activity. In this connection, it is recommended to use phytoncidal plants indoors to improve the environment. Already at a concentration of 5 mg / m³, volatile emissions are capable of changing and improving the air environment. EO monardy reduced air contamination by staphylococcus, streptococcus, diphtheria and pertussis by 10 times.

The effect of monarda essential oil on the activity of metabolic processes, the rate of cell division and the state of cytoplasmic membranes was also studied. EO monarda reduces the intensity of DNA synthesis, and the permeability of lymphocyte membranes decreases. At the same time, the number of viable lymphocytes does not decrease. When adding essential oil to the culture of fibroblasts: 0.5% emulsion leads to their death, and 0.005-0.0005% - stimulates the growth and division of these cells.

From all that has been said above, it can be seen that the most promising direction for using monarda is the development of antimicrobial, fungistatic and immunomodulatory agents on its basis. It is also possible to use plants of the genus Monarda to create phytoncidal compositions in order to improve the habitat.

But the most interesting thing is that the action is not limited to antimicrobial effect. According to research, there is a complex increase in immunity. In addition, the level of corticosterone in the body rises.

Monarda has a pronounced radioprotective (protects destructive from the effects of radiation) action. With total irradiation of mice at a dose of 1000 R, it increased the life expectancy of animals by 3.2 times and increased their survival by 18.3 times due to a decrease in death from secondary post-radiation bacterial complications, an increase in the nonspecific resistance of the organism, and partial and temporary removal of damage to the hematopoietic system.

The literature indicates such important properties of monarda as stimulation of cardiac activity and the ability to relieve neuroses, which is due to the content of flavonoids and ascorbic acid in leaves and flowers (it accumulates most of all in the regrowth phase).

Plant pigments anthocyanins - substances of a flavonoid nature - have a diuretic effect, strengthen the walls of capillaries and expand the coronary vessels of the heart. The anti-sclerotic effect of monarda is associated with an inhibitory effect on enzymes that oxidize lipids.

Home use

Now a few words about how to use the monard at home. As cold remedy take 2-3 tablespoons of crushed raw materials (fresh or dry leaves, inflorescences) pour 0.5 liters of water, boil for 8-10 minutes in a sealed container. Breathe in vapors of the extract for 10-15 minutes. Strain the infusion and drink it warm ¼ cup 3-4 times a day. It is good to rinse your mouth and throat with this broth.

You can cook infusion... For this, boiling water and raw materials in the same proportions are infused for 15-20 minutes in a closed enamel or porcelain dish.

If you are prone to allergies or very sensitive skin, it is still better to prefer chamomile or calendula.

Against salmonella. Pour two tablespoons of crushed raw monarda with two glasses of boiling water. Strain the cooled infusion and drink during the day.