Useful information

Agrotechnics of irises

Bearded irises 

Iris Christmas Ice

For planting "bearded" irises, you need to choose an open, sunny place (a little shading at midday is permissible - due to this, the flowers fade less in the sun). Bearded irises are light-requiring: once in the shade, they vegetate, but do not bloom. Bearded irises are afraid of waterlogging: in excessively damp and swampy places, their rhizome rots and the plants die. The best soils for growing them are light loamy and sandy loamy soils with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction (pH 6-6.5). Immediately before planting under irises, in no case should fresh manure be applied, because when in contact with it, the rhizome of the iris rots. It is advisable to prepare the soil no later than 2 weeks before planting, otherwise, when the freshly prepared soil settles, the irises will become too deep.

You can plant and transplant irises throughout the growing season, even at the height of flowering - the plants take root well, but the best time is right after flowering. At this time, the roots of irises are actively growing. Planting unit - delenka - is an annual link of rhizomes with a diameter of 1-2 cm and a length of no more than 3 cm, with a fan of leaves, cut off to 1 /3 length and a bunch of roots 5-7 cm long.

When digging up irises, part of the roots always breaks off, and the established rate of water and nutrients entering the leaves is disrupted. In order for the plant to restore life processes more painlessly and faster, it is useful to reduce the evaporation area by reducing the volume of the vegetative sphere. After transplanting, old roots do not resume their activity: they are needed in order to keep the planted cut in an upright position until new roots grow back. Before planting the delenki of the hybrid garden iris, it is necessary to dry it in the sun for several days - this will protect the rhizomes from the appearance of mold.

Iris Gypsy Romance

When planting, the cut must be oriented so that the leaves are on the north side, then the shadow from the fan will not fall on the rhizome. This contributes to its better warming up and is necessary for laying a flower bud. The iris should be planted so that the rhizome remains on the surface. Cover the old roots with soil and wrap your hands around the rhizome. After planting, the plant must be watered abundantly so that the soil is firmly attached to the roots and rhizome. A correctly planted divider should maintain an upright position with light patting on the fan.

If you want to quickly get powerful bushes, you can plant 3-5 year old links in one "nest". In this case, the distance between the "nests" should be at least 50-70 cm - taking into account the prospects for the growth of bushes. In one place, an iris bush can grow for at least 4-5 years, without requiring a transplant.

On bright sunny days, it is better to shade young delenki. 3-5 days after planting (depending on the weather) they can be watered again. Often irises should not be watered: they are not threatened with death from drought, but waterlogging of the soil contributes to the development of bacterial rot of the rhizome. If the weather is dry, plants need watering during flowering and during secondary vegetative growth (3-4 weeks after the end of flowering). Better to water in the evening. Avoid getting water on the rhizome. Also protect flowers from water droplets. In case of prolonged rains, it is good to cover the flowering irises with a waterproof material. After watering, do not forget to loosen the soil, but this must be done carefully, since irises have a superficial root system.

By the end of the growing season, a large amount of reserve nutrients accumulates in the rhizome of the iris: in the spring of next year, they serve as a "storeroom" from which the plant initially receives nutrition. Early spring feeding contributes to the activation of this reserve and, consequently, the rapid growth of the vegetative part.During this period, irises are especially in need of nitrogen and potassium. When the topsoil dries up, it is necessary to add ammonium nitrate (or ammonium sulfate) and potassium salt (potassium sulfate) at the rate of 20-30 g (1-1.5 matchbox) per 1 m2.

Iris Game Plan

During the growing season, irises have two growth waves and, accordingly, two peaks in nutrient intake. Application of fertilizers timed to them gives the maximum effect. The first peak falls on the phase of budding and the beginning of flowering (in the conditions of the Moscow region - from late May to mid-June). The nitrogen-potassium feeding carried out at this time (in the same proportions as the first one) increases the number of buds and their size. To increase the decorative effect of the bush during flowering, the wilted flowers are removed, and after it ends, the peduncles are cut off at the base. The place of the cut is sprinkled with crushed coal.

Immediately after the end of flowering, irises enter a dormant period: growth processes slow down sharply. 3-4 weeks later, a period of intensive secondary vegetative growth begins (in the Moscow region it lasts from mid-July to mid-August). New shoots are formed, rhizomes grow, flower buds are set and formed. At this time, the consumption of phosphorus by irises sharply increases. The fertilizer application rate is 50-60 g of superphosphate (3 matchboxes) and 20-30 g of potassium salt per 1 m2. Top dressing is carried out on wet soil, accompanied by light loosening.

A balanced diet of irises during this period is the key to abundant flowering next year. The root system of irises is afraid of increased doses of fertilizers. Thus, an excess of nitrogen introduced into the soil in the second half of summer causes fattening of plants, and irises fed by autumn are the first "victims" of winter.

Dwarf bearded irises, derived from the dwarf iris (Iris pumila L.), in the climatic conditions of central Russia, have proven themselves excellently for their ability to winter without shelter, resistance to diseases and pests, intensive vegetative growth and regular friendly flowering.

Siberian irises 

Siberian Iris Double Standards

With the right choice of a planting site, adherence to the basic rules of agricultural technology and a competent selection of varieties, the flowering season of Siberian irises can be extended to 1.5 - 2 months.

Siberian irises prefer moist habitats. In the conditions of Central Russia, as well as in more northern and eastern regions, they should be planted in open, sunny places. For good flowering, Siberian irises need 6-8 hours of sunlight in the morning.

Siberian irises prefer well-drained, well-humified soils with a slightly acidic reaction (pH 6.5-6.8). It is useful to add coniferous litter or peat to the soil. The plots are planted to a depth of 3 cm. The distance between the plots during planting is 60 cm. It is good to mulch the soil under the Siberian irises with a thick layer of pine or spruce litter or wood chips. Siberian irises can tolerate freezing temperatures even without shelter.

Japanese irises 

Iris Japanese Oriental Eyes

Japanese irises bloom around the end of the flowering season of Siberian irises (in the Moscow region - usually in late June - early July).

Japanese irises prefer moist, well-lit habitats. For full bloom, Japanese irises must be well lit by the sun for at least six hours. During the period of budding and flowering, the soil under the plantings of Japanese irises should be excessively moistened; the rest of the time during the growing season it is necessary to keep it moist. Japanese irises should be planted in slightly acidic (pH 5-6.5) well humified soils. Before planting, humus or well-rotted manure should be added to the soil. Japanese irises need feeding twice during the growing season: in the spring and before or immediately after flowering.

As flowering weakens (in Central Russia, as a rule, after 4-6 years), Japanese iris bushes must be divided and transplanted to new places, in fresh soil.Delenka should consist of 2-4 fans. The cuttings of Japanese irises are planted to a depth of 5-8 cm. The distance between the cuttings during planting is 60 cm (if the plants are planted for more than three years). The plantings of Japanese irises must be mulched annually with a layer of 10-15 cm. For the winter, plantings of Japanese irises in Central Russia must be covered, for example, with a dense layer of hay 20 cm thick.