Useful information

Tatar buckwheat is a valuable food crop

Buckwheat tartar

Buckwheat tartar (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a spring annual of the Buckwheat family, which has much in common with cultural buckwheat. The species is represented in both wild and cultural forms.

This type of buckwheat is quite widespread in Eurasia and North America, including almost all regions of Russia, although it is rare in the north and occurs only as an invasive one.

Tatar buckwheat as a weed is constantly introduced with seed in all agricultural areas up to the Far North, contaminating spring and grain crops and common buckwheat crops. The stems of this plant twine around cultivated plants, causing them to lodge, and this significantly complicates harvesting.

This weed can be found in fields, along roadsides, on cliffs, and in populated areas.

Tatar buckwheat differs from cultural buckwheat in the color of the stem - the cultivated buckwheat has a reddish stem, and the Tatar buckwheat has a pale green one.

In a number of countries in Southeast Asia and in the United States, it was introduced into the culture for obtaining grain, green mass, and is used as a raw material for obtaining rutin.

 

Botanical portrait

 

Buckwheat Tatar is a herbaceous annual plant with a height of 50 to 80 cm. The root system is pivotal. The stem is branched, smooth, geniculate, light green or green in color. Leaves are cordate-triangular or arrow-shaped, with a characteristic anthocyanin spot at the base, narrowed and pointed at the apex, ranging in size from 3 to 8 cm, the lower ones are long-petiolate, and the upper ones are almost sessile.

Buckwheat tartar

Inflorescences racemose at the top of the stem, very loose, consisting of half-umbels of 4-6 axillary flowers of yellow-green color, equipped with a leg.

The flowers are five-partite, self-pollinating, small, 1.3-1.7 mm long, odorless. In the conditions of central Russia, it blooms in July - August, bears fruit in August - September.

The fruit is a small triangular oblong-ovate coarsely rough dark gray or brown nut, 3.5-5 mm long. The edges of the nuts are wrinkled, with grooves in the middle; the ribs are blunt, crenate. Each plant can produce up to 1500 seeds.

Tatar buckwheat is favorably distinguished from its more popular relative - common buckwheat - by a higher seed yield, self-pollination ability, frost resistance and general plant viability.

Buckwheat Tatar is an early spring annual plant with seed propagation. Seedlings appear in spring at temperatures from + 6 ° C to + 8 ° C in conditions of sufficient moisture. The optimum temperature for seedling formation is from + 18 ° C to + 22 ° C. Nuts embedded deeper than 15 cm do not germinate. Seed viability lasts for 2-3 years. The first autumn frosts are destructive for the plant.

The flowering phase begins in July and lasts until August, fruiting occurs in July-September. Seed ripening is uncomfortable.

Beneficial features

 

Buckwheat Tatar is an important source for getting routine.

The plant contains flavonoids, phenolcarboxylic acids, anthocyanins. Flavonoids found in the aerial part, in particular rutin, in samples of various origins make up 2.51-4.44%. Among the flavonoids in the leaves, rutin, 3-0-α-L-rhamnosyl- (1-6) -0-β-D) -glucopyranosi, 5,7,3 ′, 4′-tetramethyl ester of quercetin were found. Found 0.39-1.3% flavonoids, incl. rutin 0.22-0.87%, in seeds rutin was 1.3-2%. Rutin in seeds is mainly contained in the embryo, which in this species occupies 25-29% of the seed. The presence of rutin was also found in flowers, leaves and stems, with the greatest amount in flowers. Among the anthocyanins of the aerial part, cyanidin was found, phenol carboxylic acids - caffeic, chlorogenic, protocatechuic.

Buckwheat tartar

Tatar buckwheat contains a lot of iron, as well as calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iodine, zinc, fluorine, molybdenum, cobalt, selenium, vitamins B1, B2, B9 (folic acid), PP, vitamin E.Seeds contain starch, protein, sugar, fatty oil, organic acids (maleic, menolenic, oxalic, malic and citric), riboflavin, thiamine, phosphorus, iron. By the content of lysine and methionine, buckwheat proteins surpass all cereal crops; it is characterized by high digestibility - up to 78%.

There are relatively few carbohydrates in buckwheat, besides, the available carbohydrates are absorbed by the body for a long time, due to which, after eating with buckwheat, you can feel full for a long time. Therefore, Tatar buckwheat is recommended for dietary nutrition in the treatment of obesity.

Buckwheat Tatar has a healing effect in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, cerebral vascular sclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. It helps to improve the functioning of the stomach, increase immunity, can be used for the prevention of cancer due to natural selenium and phagopyrin, improves the condition after exposure to radiation, removes toxic compounds from the body.

Cooking use

 

In some countries of Southeast Asia, the leaves and shoots of Tatar buckwheat are used as a vegetable. It is added to soups and salads, it is also used in marinades, and dry as a seasoning for meat dishes. They eat Tatar buckwheat and simply fried with salt. Tatar buckwheat is also fermented to make a local beer called chang or pechuvi. In China, it is used to make world famous health tea.

Cultural perspectives

 

In China, Tatar buckwheat is a very valuable culture. It has been cultivated since the Qin Dynasty. Emperor Qin Shi Huang called it "a super-miraculous remedy", comparing its effect with ginseng. In China, Tatar buckwheat is grown in the highlands with heights from 1200 to 3200 m above sea level. This plant has specific mechanisms of resistance to harsh mountain conditions and can easily withstand low temperatures and severe moisture deficit. It is unpretentious in the content of nutrients in the soil and has protection from the ultraviolet rays of the solar spectrum. Such vitality is largely due to the high content of flavonoids in the composition of this plant, which counteract unfavorable environmental factors.

Since 1989, Chinese scientists have begun an in-depth study of Tatar buckwheat due to its unique nutritional value. Currently, the consumption of Tatar buckwheat in China is growing; it is already being exported to some regions of Europe. Also, this species has been recognized in Japan as one of the beneficial food products for human health.

Buckwheat tartar

In meeting the growing interest in new food products that can be considered as functional food additives, the use of Tatar buckwheat grain is of particular interest. The high content of rutin found in grains and whole flours of this type actually makes it possible to introduce effective amounts of this biologically active compound into food recipes. Scientists today attribute a growing array of health benefits to routine that can be used for preventive nutrition. The daily dosage of rutin offered by most existing nutritional supplements is around 50 mg / day. The use of whole Tatar buckwheat flour, where the content of rutin is usually from 1000 to 2000 mg / 100 g dry weight, makes it possible to achieve such an amount with a low percentage of this ingredient in the original formulation of dietary supplements.

Himalayan Tatar buckwheat tea

One of the most famous Tatar buckwheat products in the global healthy food market is the famous Himalayan Black Tartary Buckwheat Roasted Tea.

Tatar buckwheat tea

Tatar buckwheat for this tea is grown in the Himalayan region of Yunnan at an altitude of 2,700 to 3,200 meters. In this region, the plant is usually called Indian buckwheat. The technology of making and using this buckwheat tea has been known in China since the time of the Tang Empire (Li Yuan - 7th century AD).

Himalayan buckwheat tea contains a rich list of amino acids, vitamins and compounds, as well as a large amount of iron. One teaspoon of buckwheat tea leaves contains 1.72 mg of magnesium. This buckwheat tea is very useful for people suffering from overweight and diabetes. It normalizes the digestive tract, helps to lower blood pressure, and normalizes the heart.

The grains of this buckwheat are skillfully processed here by roasting, soaking (to remove the outer shell), and then lightly roasting again. After such processing, you can eat them on their own, but if you brew them with boiling hot water, you get an unusually tasty tea, and, like good green tea, it can be used several times, with each infusion the taste changes, but remains unusually pleasant and original. The tea has a wonderful roasted aroma, slightly nutty flavor with floral and slightly sweet notes. This drink perfectly refreshes and tones up. These cooked buckwheat grains can be eaten as a stand-alone dish or added to morning cereals or breakfast cereals.

Tatar buckwheat tea