Fertilizer for strawberries (more precisely, garden strawberries) contributes to a rich harvest. Its application in the correct proportions will give the growth and development of a given culture.
Fertilizer for strawberries
Sweet and juicy strawberries are the weakness of many. It is tasty and healthy. Its cultivation is possible on different soils. Of course, for good development of the berry, it must be fed. To this end, the use of fertilizers for strawberries has become widespread, contributing to the activation of the growth of berry crops and its active fruiting.
When to fertilize strawberries
You can prepare for the new gardening season during the last snow melting period. When fertilizer is applied on time, new buds form faster. However, not every garden or vegetable garden has fertile soil. If the soil has not been fertilized for a long time and is already depleted, you can not even dream of a rich harvest. Regular feeding is necessary for both the soil and the bushes themselves. At the same time, the processing of remontant varieties of berries requires special care. They are more susceptible to feeding than other species. For this reason, they are fertilized at weekly intervals.
Stages of feeding strawberries
The fertilizer is used in three stages: after winter at the beginning of the gardening season, during the fruiting period of the berry and in autumn. For the first time, it is fed in order to timely stimulate the growth of young shoots and first leaves. The procedure is carried out in late April - early May. Re-processing is done in July. The second feeding of strawberries promotes the formation of new roots and buds. Thus, the first fruits will be in July. The third time is fertilized in mid-September. Replenishment during this period is necessary to prepare the culture for wintering.
How to feed strawberries
Fertilizers for berry crops are of three types:
Synthetic substances developed in laboratories are called mineral fertilizers. The greatest demand among them is for urea, saltpeter, sulfates, diammophos. They contain micro- and macroelements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, boron, copper, zinc, molybdenum, cobalt, manganese). Today there are many enterprises engaged in the production of mineral fertilizers (Gumi-Omi, Agricole, Fertika, Akron, KhimAgroProm).
Organic strawberry food is a naturally occurring substance. These include:
- chicken droppings;
- wood ash;
- spoiled milk;
It should be understood that the use of organic matter will not bring large berries, but they are absolutely harmless to people. In addition, the introduction of such natural fertilizers does not require restrictions in proportions: they can be used to feed the plant in any quantity. And the berry culture will absorb as many nutrients as it needs.
Complex fertilizers are designed to combine the action of mineral and organic substances. Ready-made versions are produced, including potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen, magnesium ("Berry ovary for strawberries", "Ryazanochka", etc.). Among the wide variety of drugs of this type produced today, preference should be given to those in which nitrogen in percentage is more than all other components.
Replenishment with substances of natural origin helps to get a rich harvest without harm to human health, as well as to berry crops and soil. In addition, the use of organic matter will cost much less than the purchase of mineral or complex preparations. Each of the varieties of natural feeding has its own characteristics and advantages.
Manure and humus... Dung (cow) is animal bedding mixed with animal excrements. It has long been used as a top dressing for soil and various crops (potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, etc.).Manure as a fertilizer for strawberries is the best option in the spring, before the plants begin to bloom. Prepare as follows: dilute 2 cups of manure for 10 liters of water and add 1 tablespoon of sodium sulfate. All components are mixed until smooth. This slurry is poured over the area under each bush (1 liter each).
Benefits of using cow dung:
- availability and low cost of feeding;
- high efficiency;
- saturation of the earth and berry crops with necessary trace elements and other useful substances;
- decrease in the acidity of clay soil under the influence of manure.
Humus is completely decomposed manure. It is considered the best top dressing in the spring. Humus is used at the rate of 5 kg per 1 sq. m of the area of the beds. It can be used during the planting period for the subsequent care of the berry crop. To obtain humus, it is enough to shift the manure with weeds. The strawberry fertilizer will be ready in 7 months. The benefits of humus are:
- saturation of plants with useful substances and microelements in an easily assimilated form for them;
- positive impact on the soil. The soil, saturated with humus, creates a favorable environment for the rapid and correct development of berry culture;
- long-term feeding effect. Humus feeds the plant and the soil throughout the year.
Chicken manure is used as nitrogen fertilizer. It is prepared as follows: 20 parts of water are taken for one part of poultry organics. The resulting solution is infused for 3 days and watered with 0.5 liters of the mixture under each berry bush. Chicken droppings are widely used among gardeners and gardeners due to the following advantages:
- effective impact on the rate of growth and development of the berry.
Fertilization with fermented milk products... Sour milk (sourdough) is an excellent top dressing for berry crops. Confirmation of this fact is the statement of experienced gardeners that weakly acidic soil has a beneficial effect on productivity. To normalize the acidity level of the earth, you can add sour milk to it. Its difference from other organic matter is the way it is used: feeding is not poured under the root, but a little further away (about 7-10 cm from the bush). Or the spraying method is used.
Fertilizer for strawberries is prepared as follows: the product is mixed with water in an arbitrary ratio (depending on the balance of soil acidity), but, as practice shows, the usual proportion is 1: 2. The plant is fed at the beginning of the summer season, then after harvesting and in the fall. The advantages of using fermented milk products include the following factors:
- enrichment of open ground with a storehouse of useful substances and microelements (sulfur, calcium, etc.);
- a significant increase in productivity and fruiting times;
- rapid plant growth;
- increasing the protective forces of berry culture against diseases.
Yeast feeding... An affordable and convenient fertilizer for preparation is ordinary yeast. This iodized product is very beneficial for the plant. The feeding solution can be prepared as follows: 1 kg of the product is diluted in 5 liters of water. The resulting concentration should be diluted again with water before use. For 0.5 liters of yeast solution, 10 liters of water are needed. After re-preparation of the concentrate (more diluted), it is necessary to process the plant. For 10 bushes of berry culture, 0.5 liters of solution will go. Pour it right under the bushes.
If you have only dry yeast in bags at hand, then the solution is prepared as follows: one bag of product and two tablespoons of sugar are taken for one bucket of water. To begin with, yeast is diluted in a glass of warm water, then granulated sugar is added to the solution and stirred until it is completely dissolved. After that, the contents of the glass are poured into a bucket of water. Let it brew for 2 hours. After this time, the working solution is ready for use. The advantages of using yeast include:
- valuable composition of the product (iodine, iron, phosphorus, nitrogen, etc.);
- stimulation of the growth of berry culture;
- a significant increase in plant productivity;
- strengthening the roots of berry culture;
- a positive effect on the condition of the soil due to its saturation with beneficial microorganisms;
- increasing the adaptation of the berry culture to new conditions after transplanting and its resistance to diseases.
It is advisable to feed the berry with yeast 2-3 times during the summer period. The product is used at the beginning of the season, again - during the flowering period and after harvesting). With all its advantages, it also has disadvantages. It can only be used in warm weather. With a lack of heat, fermentation does not occur, and the process stops.
How to fertilize strawberries with ash
Wood ash contains a significant amount of useful trace elements. This simple remedy is rich in potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, iron and many other nutrients needed for plant growth and development. Dry ash is introduced into the grooves of the beds. Powder should be poured at the rate of 150 g per 1 running meter. To enhance the effect, it is advisable to mix ash with peat. This fertilizer has one drawback: ash cannot be used with urea. The advantages of using wood ash are:
- stimulation of the growth of berry culture;
- saturation of the soil with nutrients and improvement of its structure;
- increased productivity;
- improving the taste of the fruit.
Read more about the properties of ash - in the article Ash application: fertilizer and pest control.
Mineral fertilizers for strawberries
This type of feeding is very effective and leads to good results. The taste and appearance of strawberries only benefit from the use of mineral fertilizers. Its berries grow large, bright, sweet and juicy. However, the use of mineral fertilizers requires caution and strict adherence to proportions. Excessive doses can harm not only the plant, but also human health. The most deadline for the introduction of mineral dressings is 2 weeks before the ripening of the plant's fruits.
Ammophoska and ammonium nitrate... Strawberries are "fed" in the second year after planting with ammonium nitrate at the rate of 100 g per 10 square meters. This fertilizer is considered the most effective among nitrogen mineral fertilizers. True, in cases where a lot of organic feeding was introduced into the soil before planting the plant, ammonium is not needed. If a berry crop is planted for the third year in a row, then 10 g of superphosphate, 150 g of ammonium nitrate and 100 g of potassium sulfate must be introduced into the soil.
This amount of fertilizer will be needed for 10 sq. m of usable area. The prepared solution is poured under the bushes. The plant itself does not need to be watered. Usually, the soil is fertilized with half of the fertilizer in the spring, and the rest is introduced after harvesting. It is forbidden to increase the dose of nitrate. It is loaded with nitrogen and overuse can lead to sugar loss. The berry will be watery and tasteless. In the spring, you can use ammonium nitrate in combination with ammophos in a 1: 2 ratio. Water the product at the rate of 15 g per 1 sq. M. in liquid form with water.
Nitroammofosk. Any mineral has its own advantages and disadvantages. The vast majority of synthetic dressings are dangerous when used in large proportions. Nitroammofosk (azofosk) is no exception. It should be used in the correct doses. So, during the period of planting strawberries, two tablespoons of granules of this drug should be poured into each square meter. In cases where the plant is re-planted, nitroammophoska is used immediately after harvesting. Prepare the solution as follows: add 1 tablespoon of top dressing to 10 liters of water.
It should be remembered that, with its effectiveness, nitroammofosk is considered one of the dangerous drugs. This synthetic substance should not be used uncontrollably, as this approach can lead to the accumulation of nitrates in the soil.Fertilizer belongs to the third level of danger: it is highly flammable. The granules of the product are capable of exploding. One should not forget about the insignificant shelf life of nitroammophoska.
Complex fertilizer "Ryazanochka" for strawberries... Ready-made feeding for strawberries "Ryazanochka" is very popular among gardeners. It contains micro- and macroelements (nitrogen, manganese, phosphorus, zinc, copper, potassium, boron, molybdenum, cobalt). For root feeding, a solution should be prepared at the rate of 1 teaspoon of Ryazanochka (4 g) per 10 liters of water. The plant must be fed in the morning or evening.
The finished product is consumed depending on the period of development of the berry culture. So, at the beginning of the vegetative development of strawberries, the solution is watered at the rate of 5 liters per 2-3 sq.m. area. With budding, the beginning of flowering and active fruiting of the berry, 10 liters of the product are spent on the same area. The last time the plant is “fed” 2-3 weeks before harvest.
"Ryazanochka" can also be used by the foliar method. Only in this case, the solution is prepared differently: ½ teaspoon (2 g) is added to 10 liters of water. The resulting product is sprayed with berry culture in the morning and evening in cloudy, but not rainy weather twice during the summer season. The advantages of Ryazanochka include the following properties:
- a positive effect on the taste and external qualities of the fruit;
- increasing the yield of berry crops through the use of complex feeding;
- beneficial effect on disease resistance of the berry.
Features of feeding strawberries in spring
Fertilizing strawberries in spring is a must. The further development of the plant and the volume of the crop largely depend on how correctly this procedure is carried out. You should know that feeding a young strawberry in the spring is different from feeding its adult "relatives".
How to fertilize young plants correctly
There is no urgent need to fertilize young strawberries planted in the fall in early spring. If you still want to give her additional food, you need to prepare the following solution: add 0.5 liters of manure or poultry organic matter to 10 liters of water, 1 tablespoon of sodium sulfate. The resulting mixture is poured under each strawberry bush, 1 liter, no more.
How to feed adult strawberries
Adult plants are fertilized with the same means as young crops, only when loosening the soil is sprinkled with ash at the rate of 2 cups per square meter of area. Nettle solution is an excellent biofertilizer. They fill a bucket with it, fill it with water and insist for a week (as little as possible). The resulting solution is sprayed on the plant at the beginning of the formation of bushes and after harvesting.
Read more in the article Herbal starter cultures for plant nutrition.
The use of mullein is effective: for 1 part of it, 5 parts of water and 60 g of superphosphate are taken. The resulting solution is poured into the grooves made along the beds, 4-5 cm deep.
Fertilizer for strawberries when planting
The first feeding is performed in mid-April. For these purposes, mullein or bird droppings are used. When re-feeding, already during the flowering period of the plant, the strawberries are fertilized with mineral agents. And, finally, the third, final feeding is carried out using weed infusion. In summer, fertilizing with liquid manure is good. In autumn, you can use both organic and mineral fertilizers. The main thing is to prevent overdose.
Read also the article Care for garden strawberries after harvest.