Useful information

Palm trees - princes of the plant world

Canarian date in front of the Institute

"Princes of the flora" - this is what Karl Linnaeus called the palms. These monocotyledonous plants from the arecaceae family (Arecaceae) are represented, for the most part, by tree-like forms with unbranched trunks (with the exception of the genus Hyphaene Gaertn.), in which primary thickening occurs. They are widespread in all tropical and subtropical regions of the planet. Introduced palm trees of the genera grow on the territory of the former USSR in areas with a subtropical climate Chamaerops L., Phoenix L., Sabal Adans., Trachycarpus H. Wendl., Washingtonia H. Wendl. and some others [1, 3]. On the Black Sea coast of the Krasnodar Territory (mainly in the Sochi region), in gardens and parks, you can find more than 30 species of palm trees (not counting forms) belonging to 12 genera. Among them, 12 species belonging to 7 genera are the most stable in culture [3]. However, there are much more representatives of the arecaceae family. You can expand their range by growing in protected ground (winter gardens, greenhouses). For this purpose, 103 species of palms are suitable (79 - feathery, 24 - fan) [5].

The winter garden of GNU VNIITSISK of the Russian Agricultural Academy was founded a quarter of a century ago (1989) by the famous master of landscape architecture Sergei Ilyich Venchagov. It is made in a regular (geometric) style, its area (67.77 m2), divided into modules of different sizes (squares and rectangles), has several levels, the height of which varies from 10 to 50 cm. The light is mainly natural due to the glazed roofs and openings located along the perimeter of the building, so the crowns of palm trees are illuminated evenly from all sides.

The advantage of a winter garden is the ability to maintain the required air humidity. However, the microclimate here is rather difficult, in many respects not suitable for a number of tropical and subtropical plants. Due to the peculiarities of its location, the winter garden has a number of specific characteristics: low illumination (the glazed roof is located at a height of more than 20 m), lack of heating and, as a consequence, low air and soil temperatures in winter, drafts [4]. However, members of the family Arecaceae under these conditions, they are quite stable, regularly form new leaves, bloom. In the winter garden of the institute there are 11 species of palm trees belonging to 10 genera.

Vodietiya, or fox tail (Wodyetia A.K. Irvine). Monotypic genus, including the only species of Vodietia bifurcata (Wodyetia bifurcata A.K. Irvine). Endemic to Cape Melville (northern Australia, Queensland), first described in 1978. A tropical palm tree with feathery leaves and a straight trunk up to 10 m high. The genus is named after the aboriginal Wodyetiwho opened this magnificent plant to the world. Species name bifurcata (Latin - double-branched) indicates an unusual feature of the structure of the leaves, thanks to which the name "fox's tail" appeared. The palm tree is undemanding to soil and climatic conditions, tolerates drought well and a wide range of illumination - from direct sunlight to partial shade.

Gioforba (Hyophorbe Gaertn.). Species of this genus are endemic to the Mascarene Islands, often cultivated in tropical countries, but belong to the endangered species. Gioforb Vershaffelt (Hyophorbeverschaffeltii H.A. Wendl) is named after the famous gardener Ambrois Vershaffelt. In nature, it grows exclusively on about. Rodriguez. It is a low palm tree with 8-10 leaves growing from the top of a bottle-shaped trunk. A very thermophilic plant, lowering the temperature to 0 ° C can lead to death or serious damage even to adult specimens. Excessively dry air or excessive watering causes the tips of the leaves to turn brown; the plant can withstand only a slight overdrying of an earthen coma.

Neotropical genus Chamedorea (Chamaedorea Willd.) in the winter garden is represented by two types - C. elegans Mart. and Ch. SeifriziiBurret.The range of the genus stretches from Mexico to Peru and Brazil, palms usually grow in the foothills, often under the canopy of tall trees (this explains the shade tolerance of plants in room culture). Low, graceful feathery palms with thin reed-like stems look great in the interiors of buildings.

Hamedorea graceful (Chamaedoreaelegans) grows as a bush, has many stems up to 1.5-1.8 m high, 2.5-3.0 cm thick, each of which develops 5-7 long-petiolate leaves, consisting of narrow-lanceolate lobes (8-14 pcs.) ... Distributed in humid mixed, usually dense tropical forests of eastern and southern Mexico, as well as in Guatemala. Occurs up to 1400 m above sea level. In the winter garden of the Institute, it regularly forms cob inflorescences, flowers are small, from light yellow to red-orange, odorous. Highly decorative plant, widespread in indoor floriculture [6].

Hamedorea Seyfritz, or bamboo palm (Chamaedorea seifrizii) got its name due to the numerous bamboo-like thin stems with a diameter of 1-2 cm, with well-visible internodes located at intervals of 5-20 cm.In nature, it grows in the humid forests of Mexico and Central America. Needs high air humidity, otherwise undemanding. It occupies one of the leading places (after the previous type) in interior decoration, and for some subtropical regions it is used as an attachment (container) culture.

Areca catechuHovey Belmora

Genus close to hamedorea gaussian (Gaussia).

Gaussian gomez pump (Gaussiagomez-pompae H.J. Quero) is an endangered endemic species native to Mexico that grows on steep rocky limestone slopes. Palm tree 10-14 m high, trunk 30 cm in diameter. The leaves are pinnately dissected, the fruits are orange-red with a diameter of 1.5-1.6 cm, the plant has a thickened base and stilted (supporting) roots.

Genus cariot (Caryota L.) differs from other palms in large dissected double-feathery leaves. In the winter garden, the soft caryote common for greenhouse collections is cultivated, or fish tail (Caryota mitis Lour.) - a graceful palm tree forming compact bunches of low stems. Monocarpic species, natural range - in secondary forests from Burma to the Malacca Peninsula, Kalimantan and the Philippine Islands. In protected ground conditions, the palm tree needs high air humidity, regular spraying and abundant watering from spring to autumn. In winter, plants must be kept at a temperature of at least 18 ° C, watered moderately.

Adonidia Merrilla (Adonidia merrillii Becc.) naturally grows in the Philippines. The plant got its name "Christmas palm" thanks to its attractive fruits, which, when grown in the Northern Hemisphere, turn bright red at the end of December. Lightweight

in care, but extremely thermophilic tropical feathery palm.

Adonidia MerrillaHamedorea Seyfritz

Ptychosperm MacArthur (Ptychosperma macarthurii (H. Wendl. Ex H. J. Veitch) H. Wendl. ex Hook.f.), named after William MacArthur, famous in the second half of the 19th century. Australian gardener. Distributed in Australia (Queensland), found in tropical rainforests of New Guinea. Palm tree up to 3 m and more with many thin (up to 7 cm in diameter) grayish-green stems in rings, similar to reed. Leaves are feathery, dark green, about 1 m long. Prefers warm, humid conditions, diffused lighting (all year round), rich, well-drained soil. In winter, the minimum temperature of the content is not lower than 18 ° C.

Rod hovei (Howea Becc.) includes two types. They are among the most beautiful palms, hardy and unpretentious when grown indoors. In the winter garden, hovea is represented by one species - hovea belmora (Howea belmoreana (C. Moore & F. Muell.) Becc.), which is distinguished by large, feathery, gracefully curved leaves with densely spaced wide lobes. In natural conditions, it occurs on coral sands and hills in the coastal zone on Lord Howe Island, being its endemic. This species easily tolerates dry air, develops well in bright rooms.The temperature in winter should be at least 16 ° C (the optimum value is 18 ° C). In summer, abundant watering (as well as spraying) is needed, in winter - more moderate [2].

Areca genus (Areca L.) has about 50 species of monoecious palms, common in tropical Asia - from India and Sri Lanka to the Solomon Islands, the Philippine Islands and New Guinea in the undergrowth of the tropical rainforest. Betel palm, or areca catechu (Areca catechu L.) - one of the most economically important plants in the tropics of the Old World. The fruits (it is because of them that the palm tree is cultivated) contain tannins and alkaloids, they are widely used in medicine and veterinary medicine, in the textile industry for dyeing fabrics. This is a slender palm tree 12-18 m high (according to some sources, up to 30 m), with an unbranched straight smooth trunk 20-50 cm in diameter, covered with numerous, regularly spaced annular scars remaining in the place of fallen leaves. Leaves are alternate, pinnate, 1.5-2 m long, covering the trunk with long leafy sheaths, forming a "green cone" at the top of an adult palm. Plants tolerate direct sunlight, in the spring-summer period they prefer abundant watering, in the fall - moderate. In winter, the ambient temperature must be at least 16 ° C. For a palm tree, an increased

air humidity, regular spraying is needed in summer.

Hamedorea gracefulKaryota soft

Date genus (Phoenix L.) in the winter garden of the Institute is represented by the Canary date (Phoenix canariensis Hort. Ex Chabaud). It grows naturally in the Canary Islands. In the conditions of Sochi, it is used in green construction, in large quantities it is grown in the open field. In adulthood, these are rather tall (4-5 m) single-stemmed palms with large feathery leaves. In protected ground, they are quite hardy plants. In winter, they grow noticeably better at 8-10 ° C, but they develop well at a higher temperature of 14-16 ° C (leaves must be washed with water at least once a month) [5]. They are light-loving plants that need a well-drained, calcareous soil. In the open ground, they seriously freeze when the air temperature drops below minus 9 ° C. At the same time, the frost resistance of individual specimens is individual (in winter, young palms need an obligatory shelter, and adult specimens need to bind the inner leaves of the crown) [3].

All palms presented at the State Scientific Institution VNIITSISK of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences are feathery, most of them are quite easy to care for and undemanding to growing conditions. They prefer diffused lighting, high humidity of air and soil, moderate temperature (12-18 ° С).

The main limiting factors of development are specific conditions, which were already mentioned above: low illumination of the room, inappropriate temperature regime of the soil and air in winter, drafts. It should be noted that in the winter garden of the Institute, the above-mentioned palms withstood short-term air temperature drops to + 10 ° С without damage (winter 2013-2014). Nevertheless, even in such extreme conditions, palm trees develop normally, their range can and should be replenished.

Palm trees - one of the best decorative indoor plants - were introduced into culture at the beginning of the 19th century. and still remain the most popular for interior decoration. They play an important role in the design of large rooms. Adult specimens are used as tapeworms, younger ones are included in the compositions of winter gardens. Palms are slow growing, very hardy and incredibly malleable. When placing them in interiors, greenhouses and conservatories, light and temperature conditions, air humidity, and the height of the room should be taken into account. If you follow simple care techniques, the "princes of the plant world" will delight you day after day.

Sabal and buds near the Institute

Literature

1. Imkhanitskaya N.N. The family of Arecaceae, or palms (Arecaceae, or Palmae) // Plant Life. In 6 volumes / Ch. ed. A.L. Takhtadzhyan. - M .: Education, 1981. - T. 6. - S. 410-447.

2. Kapranova N.N. Indoor plants in the interior / N.N. Kapranova. - M .: Publishing house of Moscow State University, 1989. - P. 26-30.

3. Karpun, Yu.N.Subtropical decorative dendrology. - St. Petersburg: publishing house "VVM", 2010. - pp. 363–374.

4. Klemeshova K.V. Winter garden GNU VNIITS and SK of the Russian Agricultural Academy / K.V. Klemeshova, A.V. Kelina // Scientific research in the subtropics of Russia: collection of articles. tr. pier scientists, graduate students and applicants. - Sochi, 2013. –S. 201–209.

5. Saakov S.G. Palms and their culture in the USSR / S.G. Saakov. - M., L .: Publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1954. - S. 272–293.

6. Saakov S.G. Hamedoreya // Greenhouse and indoor plants and their care / Otv. ed. R.V. Camelyn. - L .: Nauka, 1985. - S. 182–183.

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