Useful information

Small-flowered clematis

Clematis

The collection of species and varieties of the genus Clematis L. has been formed in the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University since 2009.

Small-flowered clematis can successfully demonstrate in the open ground of central European Russia the species and varietal diversity of this crop, as well as the possibilities of its use in landscape design. Many of these clematis are distinguished by their lush and long flowering and original flower shape. Small-flowered species and varieties are interesting not only for expanding the collection. Due to abundant flowering (at different times), various colors and shapes of graceful flowers, as well as original fruits (in autumn), they are promising for creating spectacular expositions - using various types of supports that these vines need. They are perfect for decorating terraces and pergolas, arcades and gazebos. The shoots of clematis strewn with flowers look great against the background of the walls of buildings. They are also good in solitary plantings on supports - columns or tree trunks. Clematis can be used to decorate pillars, not to mention unsightly fences of outbuildings. In addition, the variety of life forms allows this culture to be very widely used in modern landscape design and ornamental gardening. Small-flowered clematis can be used as ground cover and ampelous plants. Erect, low-growing specimens are suitable for creating borders, decorating retaining walls, for group and single plantings on lawns, in rocky gardens, as well as in containers on verandas and balconies. Finally, many types of small-flowered clematis have a wonderful aroma.

Genus clematis, or clematis (Clematis) refers to this. buttercup (Ranunculaceae) and unites about 300 species [1]. Among them there are shrubs and semi-shrubs, woody and semi-woody vines - both deciduous and semi- and evergreen. According to the taxonomic system of the genus Clematis L. M. Tamura, they are divided into 11 sections (with 14 subsections) [6]. More than 10 types of clematis grow on the territory of the Russian Federation. Most of them are common in the south and southeast of Siberia, the south of the Far East - in particular, because the short-tailed (C. brevicaudata) and K. Manchu (C. mandschurica). The area of ​​Siberian clematis, or Siberian prince (C. sibirica = Atragene sibirica) is more extensive: it occurs from Karelia to the upper reaches of the Volga and to the east to the central Urals, in Western and Eastern Siberia. In nature, clematis live along river banks and pebble deposits, in meadows, in thickets of shrubs and along the edges of coniferous and deciduous forests, along rocky slopes and placers. Many species of the genus Clematis have high ecological plasticity, so that they can be successfully bred in gardens.
Short-tailed clematisClematis Manchu
Several types of clematis are cultivated in the Botanical Garden of Moscow University [4]. K. straight (C. recta) - an erect herbaceous polycarpic up to 1.5 m high - grown on a plot of useful plants located near the entrance to the Botanical Garden (from the Biological Faculty of Moscow State University). In nature, this species grows in the southern and central regions of European Russia. K. straight, which has strong phytoncidal properties, has long been used in medicine. It blooms very profusely from late May to July: its white small flowers, collected in inflorescences, are distinguished by a strong aroma.

In June-July blooms undersized (no more than 1 m in height) erect k. Whole-leaved (C. integrifolia) with single, drooping, blue-violet, bell-shaped flowers. C. whole-leaved is widespread almost throughout the entire European part of our country, in the Ciscaucasia and the North Caucasus, in the southeast of Western and southwest of Eastern Siberia.

Clematis straightWhole-leaf clematis

In the exposition of the rock garden you can see K. grape-leaved (C. vitalba), which is popularly called "the joy of the traveler" or "the beard of an old man."In nature, this species is widespread in the Caucasus and Crimea, in Central and Southern Europe, in Asia Minor and in North Africa - in deciduous and mixed forests, thickets of shrubs and on rocky slopes. In June-July, creamy white flowers with a variable aroma open on this vigorous (up to 6 m) woody liana. K. grape-leaved is a good honey plant. By the way, its young leaves and sprouts (as well as in K. direct) are eaten: they taste like asparagus.

The collection of the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University includes the candidate of Tangut (C. tangutica), growing in the southeast of Central Asia, in Western China and Mongolia - on rocky slopes, talus, pebble deposits. This species, which in culture is a shrub liana (up to 3-4 m), is distinguished by abundant and long flowering: its bright yellow, single, broad-bell-shaped, drooping flowers adorn the garden from May to September.

Clematis purple

Compared to many other ornamental plants, the clematis culture is quite young: the first information about its introduction dates back to the middle of the 16th century, when purple (C. viticella) [3; 5]. Today, the world assortment of clematis includes about 250 species (as well as taxa of a lower rank) and over 2500 varieties [7]. According to the modern international garden classification of clematis, all cultivars are divided into two categories: small-flowered (small-flowered cultivars) and large-flowered (large-flowered cultivars). Among the latter are both early varieties (they bloom in late spring - first half of summer on the shoots of the previous year and often repeatedly - on the shoots of the current year; while some varieties can bloom continuously throughout the season) - belonging to the 2nd pruning group, and late (blooming in summer or early autumn on the shoots of the current year), belonging to the 3rd pruning group. Small-flowered clematis by origin from the original species are divided into 13 groups: Armandii, Atragene, Cirrhosa, Flammula, Forsteri, Heracleifolia, Integrifolia, Montana, Tangutica, Texensis, Viorna, Vitalba, Viticella [2; 7]. Types and varieties from groups Armandii, Cirrhosa, Forsteri, Montana it is unpromising to cultivate in the open ground of the middle zone of European Russia [8].

In addition to the above, in the collection of the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University, small-flowered clematis are also represented by species of hybrid origin and varieties of several garden groups: Heracleifolia - C. x jouiniana (C. tubulosa x C. vitalba); Tangutica - ‘My Angel’ (W. Snoeijer g J. van Zoest); Texensis - ‘Zomibel’ (‘MienieBelle’ *, W. Snoeijer, 2007); Integrifolia - C. x durandii (C. integrifolia x C. lanuginosa), 'Cosette’(M.A... Karavaynaya, 1978), 'Sizaya Bird’(M.A... Karavaynaya, E.A... Donyushkina, 1980). The latter are shown in the exposition of the Botanical Garden as tapeworms. In the future, it is planned to expand the collection by including species and varieties from these and other groups of small-flowered clematis, suitable for growing in the open ground of the middle lane.

Clematis x Durandi

In particular, such well-known domestic varieties of the group Integrifolia as ‘Alyonushka’ (A.N. Volosenko-Valenis, M.A. Beskaravaynaya, 1963) and ‘Memory of the Heart’ (M.A.Beskaravaynaya, 1970). Of the clematis of foreign selection, you should pay attention to 'Hakuree' (H. Hayakawa, until 1991): this Japanese variety is distinguished by long flowering - from June to September its flexible shoots, which do not cling to supports, but can lean on them, are decorated with white with a light purple center, small (3-4 cm), bell-shaped flowers, and with July to late autumn - fluffy decorative seedlings. This clematis is not only good for flower gardens, it can also be used as a groundcover or planted between shrubs. An interesting novelty ‘Sweetheart’With large (7.5-10 cm)," bells "with twisted pink-lilac petals blooms from June to September on shoots 1.5-2 m long. Both varieties need strong pruning (3rd group).

Clematis AlyonushkaClematis Hakurei
Clematis Sweatheart

In a group Atragene Attention is drawn to the varieties of English selection, the shoots of which (2-4 m long) in the spring are covered with graceful, drooping, semi-double flowers. Do ‘Cecile’(Grade C. macropetala) blue bell-shaped flowers (3-5 cm) with elongated (4-5 cm) petals. From C. alpina cultivars occur with flowers in pink and red tones: ‘Constance’(K. Goodman, 1992) and’Pink Flamingo ' (E. Jones and R. Evison, 1993). All these clematis belong to the 1st pruning group.

Clematis ConstanceClematis Pink Flamingo

Very decorative varieties of the group Viticella: their bell-shaped drooping 4-petal flowers from July to September open on the shoots of the current year (3rd pruning group). Interestingly, older varieties have longer shoots (3-4 m) than modern varieties (1.5-3 m).

"Classics" of French selection - variety ‘Kermesina’(Lemoine et fils, 1883) - has wine-red flowers (4-7 cm), and’Betty Corning ' (E. Corning and A.H. Steffen, Jr., USA, 1933) - slightly elongated (5-6 cm long), from pale to mauve.

Clematis KermesinaClematis Betty CorningClematis Confetti

New in pink and red - English variety ‘Evipo036’(‘ Confetti ’*, R. Evison, M.N. Olesen, 2004), and also Polish‘Krakowiak'(S. Marczynski, 2011) - with light reddish-purple, with a rich pink stripe, wide open flowers (5-8 cm).

Finally in the group Flammula attracted by the novelty of the Polish selection 'Sweet Summer Love ' (S. Marczynski, 2011) - with fragrant purple flowers (3-4 cm) that adorn the shoots (3-3.5 m long) in July-September. This cultivar is recommended for sunny places (3rd group of pruning). In addition, in the climatic conditions of the middle zone of European Russia, it is possible to grow clematis groups Viorna and Viticella, the range of which also needs to be studied to replenish the collection of the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University. The species and varieties of small-flowered clematis planted at supports of various designs will demonstrate the wide possibilities of using this culture in the landscape of the Garden, which will allow not only to advantageously present the exposition as a whole, but will also contribute to the promotion of the achievements of world and domestic breeding of clematis.

* Commercial name of the variety.

Literature:

[1] Beskaravaynaya M.A. Clematis. - Kiev, "Harvest", 1989. - 142 p.

[2] Golikov K.A. Modern garden classification of clematis // Russian Academy of Sciences. Department of Biological Sciences. Council of Botanical Gardens of Russia and Belarus. Branch of the International Council of Botanic Gardens for Plant Conservation. Information Bulletin, 2010. - Vol. 20. - S. 81-84.

[3] Golikov K.A. Clematis: history and modern centers of hybridization // Floriculture, 2010. - No. 5. - P. 26-29.

[4] Golikov K.A., Lavrova T.V. Excursion to the collection of species and varieties of the genus Clematis L. in the botanical garden of the biological faculty of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov // Landscape architecture in botanical gardens and arboretums: Materials of the IV All-Russian conference with international participation, June 26-29, 2012 - M: MGUL, 2012. - pp. 105-117.

[5] Riekstina V.E., Riekstinsh I.R. Clematis. - L .: Agropromizdat. Leningrad. department, 1990 .-- 287 p.

[6] Tamura M. Morphology, ecology and phylogeny of the Ranunculaceae // Science Reports, 1968. - V. 17. - No. 1. - P. 21-42.

[7] The International Clematis Register and Checklist 2002 / Compiled by Victoria Mattews, International Clematis Registrar. - Published by The Royal Horticultural Society. London, 2002. - 367 pp.

[8] Toomey M., with Leeds E. and Chesshire Ch. Timber Press pocket guide to clematis. - Timber Press. Portland, 2006 .-- 232 pp.