Seat selection and landing
For planting viburnum, an open, illuminated place is preferable, although the shrub can withstand slight partial shade. For the cultivation of ornamental varieties, a light fertile soil is desirable, species specimens can accept heavier and slightly acidic soils. For viburnum, you need a site without stagnant water. Planting dates: spring (before the leaves bloom) and autumn - from massive leaf fall to the first frost.
Viburnum bushes are placed in the garden at a distance of 2.5-3.5 m from each other. The best fruiting results are obtained when planting in a group (at least two-triplicate) to ensure cross-pollination.
When preparing the soil for planting, loosening and weeding are carried out. The size of the planting pit depends on the height of the shrub and soil fertility. For 3-year-old bushes, the optimal depth is 40-50 cm, diameter 40 cm. Each hole is filled with fertile soil (humus and peat) with the addition of 50 g of complex mineral fertilizer. When planting, the bushes need watering. For the efficiency of irrigation, a stream of water is directed into the hole under the plant, so that the entire soil is saturated with moisture, and the soil is moistened to a depth of 40-50 cm.
In the year of planting and subsequent years, caring for the viburnum consists in loosening, weeding, regular watering and fertilizing. Mulching helps to protect the soil and plant roots from overheating, reduces the growth of weeds, especially annuals, whose seeds are spread in large quantities through the air. On the soil, free of weeds, scatter in an even layer (7-10 cm thick) around the shrub mulch in the form of wood chips, bark, peat. The best time for mulch application is late spring, when the soil is still sufficiently moistened, but already well warmed up.
Annually in the spring, under each viburnum bush, they bring in a bucket of rotted manure or compost. Mineral dressing is carried out in the spring and before flowering. The approximate doses of fertilization per planting hole are given below. For greater effectiveness, they can be dissolved in 1 bucket of water before adding.
Viburnum pruning is carried out for the purpose of sanitary cleaning, rejuvenation and crown formation. With sanitary pruning of shrubs, dry, broken off and diseased shoots are systematically removed. All viburnums have a long period of shoot growth, the durability of its trunks is more than 30 years. Therefore, rejuvenating pruning on viburnum is carried out no more often than after 5-7 years. Old branches are cut out to the point of appearance of stem growth, leaving about 20-25 strong and large shoots. Such a thinning of the viburnum crown can be carried out in winter or early spring, in early April. It is recommended to cut bushes with weakened flowering "on a stump" at a height of 15-30 cm from the root collar. After pruning, strong young shoots develop from dormant buds, and the bush is completely restored. For abundant flowering in viburnum, it is recommended to pinch strongly growing young shoots.
Viburnum is well cuttings, gives layering, is divided by a bush and propagated by seeds.
Green cuttings viburnum is harvested during the flowering period (in June-early July), when they are elastic, do not break when bent, but spring. They are cut with 2-3 knots, 7-10 cm long. Make an oblique cut at the bottom and remove the leaves, the cuts should be smooth. Cuttings root well if treated with Kornevin or Heteroauxin. Then they are planted to a depth of 1-2 cm in a greenhouse filled with coarse river sand mixed with peat in a 1: 1 ratio. The greenhouse should be covered with glass frames or plastic wrap until the cuttings take root.Rooting occurs after 3 weeks at a temperature of + 27 + 300C and a humidity of 70%. During this period, the substrate is regularly sprayed with water. Until the end of August, while the roots are strengthening, the frames are replaced with fitting shields. For the winter, the cuttings remain in the greenhouse. They are covered with dry leaves or spruce branches, and in spring they are planted in open ground. After 2-Viburnum plants bloom for 3 years.
Read more in the article Green cuttings of woody plants.
To obtain layering, in the spring, annual shoots of viburnum are bent to the ground and radially laid out in shallow grooves, but the top of the shoot remains on the surface. The decomposed shoots are pinned with 2-3 hooks and sprinkled with loose earth or humus. For better root formation, the bark above the backfill is pulled over with wire or cut. By autumn, roots develop on each horizontal layer, and young plants are formed from the buds, which are cut off with pruning shears and transplanted to a permanent place.
In spring or autumn, a young viburnum bush is dug up, then it is neatly divided into 2-3 parts, so that each plant has at least 2-3 kidney renewal. This is how the viburnum is propagated dividing the bush.
For reproduction by seed method large viburnum seeds are separated from the pulp before sowing. Then they are washed in water and dried in a ventilated area. Viburnum seeds can be sown in the fall. With the autumn sowing of freshly harvested seeds in the ground, shoots of viburnum appear only after a year. To speed up their germination, pre-sowing treatment is recommended. - cold stratification. To do this, the seeds of Viburnum vulgaris and Viburnum Sargent are placed in wet sand and kept at a temperature of + 4 + 50C for 5-6 months. For viburnum Bureinskaya, 3-4 months of stratification are enough.
It is possible to carry out warm-cold stratification of viburnum seeds. To do this, immediately after harvesting the fruits (in September-October), the seeds are placed in boxes with wet sand and stored at a temperature of + 20 + 28 ° С for 2 months, and then transferred until spring to a colder room with a temperature regime from 0 to + 5 ° C. When sowing, the seeds are deepened into the substrate by 3-4 cm. In the spring, friendly shoots appear, and the seedlings dive into the garden bed. Viburnum seed germination lasts up to 2 years.
Viburnum pests and diseases
Viburnum vulgaris suffer very much from viburnum leaf beetle, which is capable of damaging the leaves so badly that only the veins remain of them. In May-In June, the larva eats up plant tissue, and the adult leaf beetle lays eggs under the bark. Even flowers and fruits are damaged by this pest. From-for this, not only the decorative qualities of the shrubs deteriorate sharply, but also the yield decreases. To protect the viburnum from leaf beetle, the bushes should be treated with an infusion or decoction of plants with a strong odor (garlic, hot pepper, yarrow, wormwood, nightshade, etc.).
These herbs with insecticidal and phytoncidal properties are harvested during the flowering period. For better adhesion, add laundry soap (20-40 g per 10 l of water). Spraying is carried out in the evening in dry weather. During the period of mass development of the viburnum leaf beetle, treatment with Iskra, Inta-Vir (1 tablet per bucket of water), Aktara (0.8 g / l) helps.
Viburnum flowers do not open if viburnum gall midge, honeysuckle flower gall midge or barberry flower moth settled in the bush. Caterpillar lilac hawk with a black outgrowth at the end of the body, damages the leaves of the viburnum.
Black viburnum aphid feeds on juice on the young parts of the shoot, and viburnum leaf roll rolls the leaves.
On the leaves of the viburnum gordovina, damage is much less common. However, the characteristic moves-makes mines proud cap moth, and oval mines with reddish swellings on the upper side of the leaf leave proud moth-speckled. Comma shield can settle on trunk and branches.
In addition, powdery mildew and various spots are occasionally found on viburnum.