Useful information

A native Russian vegetable - turnip: varieties and properties

How long have you tried turnip dishes? Now even many grandparents will not remember this time! And young people only know the name, because in childhood they were told a fairy tale about a turnip. But there were times when turnips were the main vegetable on the table of every family. They made stews from it, cooked steamed turnips, cooked turnip porridge.

Before the advent of potatoes in Russia, which today we consider the second bread, turnip was used quite widely, since the cultivation of this crop is fast, and it was possible to grow two crops per summer. In addition, it is well stored and, most importantly, retains all the beneficial properties and vitamins until spring.

But the widespread introduction of potatoes in the middle of the 19th century led to almost complete oblivion of this culture. Rarely in what garden can you find turnips now, and almost all of its varieties were bred by our great-great-grandfathers, tk. almost no one is engaged in its selection now.

The healing properties of turnip in folk medicine have always been widely used. Not a single nation appreciated turnips as much as the Russian. It is no coincidence that it was considered a primordially Russian vegetable.

The chemical composition of turnips is quite rich. It contains sugar, a lot of vitamin C (up to 40 mg%), carotene, organic acids, essential oils, potassium, calcium, phosphorus salts, nitrogenous substances, phytoncides. In terms of vitamin C content, turnip is 1.5 times higher than onion. And it accumulates even more sugars than sweet apples.

Turnip has a diuretic, wound healing, antiseptic and analgesic effect; it is recommended for elderly people suffering from chronic constipation.

Biological features

Turnip belongs to the cruciferous family. In the first year, it forms a rosette of basal leaves and a root crop, in the second, a flower stem and seeds. It is so unpretentious in cultivation and preparation that the saying “simpler than a steamed turnip” was even born among the people.

Turnip roots are fleshy, varied in size, often flat or flat-round, they are not deeply immersed in the soil, the weight of the root crop in some varieties reaches up to 700-900 g.

The color of the underground part of the root crop is varied - yellow, white, green, pink; aboveground - green, purple, bronze, yellow, etc. The pulp of turnip is juicy, yellow or white, sweetish with a rare aftertaste, with a lack of moisture in the soil - slightly bitter.

Turnip is a light-loving, cold-resistant and at the same time quite heat-resistant plant. Its seeds begin to germinate at a temperature of 2–3 ° С, the seedlings can withstand frosts down to minus 2 ° С, and adult plants - up to minus 5–6 ° С. Best of all, the root crop is formed at a temperature of 18–20 ° C.

The special value of turnip is in its early maturity. Early varieties of turnip yield a harvest in 55-60 days, and in 70-80 days you can get marketable root crops from later varieties. And bunch maturity of root crops in early ripening varieties of turnip occurs in 35–45 days.

In recent years, in Russian gardens one can more and more often meet a completely new culture for us - salad turnip "kokabu", which, unlike European turnips, also uses tops for food. It is grown in the same way as a regular turnip. But this is a topic for another conversation.

Turnip varieties

The varietal composition of turnips has recently been significantly enriched, mainly due to varieties of foreign selection:

  • White Night - mid-season Czech variety of lettuce turnip, ripens in 70 days. White roots, up to 12 cm in diameter and weighing up to 500 g, are submerged in the soil by two-thirds. The pulp of root vegetables is white, juicy, there are no lignified fibers in it. In winter, it tastes like a radish.
  • Snow White - early maturing variety of turnip of the Japanese type. The period from germination to the start of harvesting is 45-50 days. Root crops are snow-white, round, weighing 60-80 g. The pulp is white, tender, dense, very juicy, of excellent taste.It is used in cooking for fresh consumption and preparation of various dishes. In addition to root vegetables, leaves are also eaten in salads. The leaves are high in carotene and ascorbic acid. The variety is cold-resistant and shade-tolerant.
  • White ball - mid-season high-yield turnip variety. Root vegetables are white, round, with juicy, excellent taste, pulp without bitterness, weighing 500 g. The leaves, which are used for salads, are very rich in vitamin C.
  • Granddaughter - early ripening variety, from germination to technical ripeness - 50-55 days, with amicable harvest formation. The root crop is rounded. Root weight - 50-60 g. The bark is yellow, tender, smooth. The pulp is firm, very juicy, sweet. The taste is excellent. Root vegetables are used fresh, for preparing salads, suitable for storage in the autumn-winter period.
  • Geisha - an early ripening variety of lettuce turnip, resistant to stemming. Root crops are round, white, weighing up to 200 g, one third submerged in the soil. The plant is cold-resistant, resistant to low light. Delicate leaves without pubescence contain 70 mg% vitamin C and serve as an excellent salad greens. In summer, it is a very juicy, tasty root vegetable with a pleasant light pungency. The taste is amazing, it is used raw in salads, okroshka, botvinia. But for winter storage, it is better not to lay in the cellars, because this turnip is for summer.
  • Glasha - an early ripening variety, the period from germination to technical ripeness is 43-48 days. Root crops are flat, the skin is white, weighing 70-100 g. The pulp is white, juicy, dense, with an excellent taste. Root crops are very easily pulled out of the soil. The variety is suitable for long-term winter storage. The great taste of the root vegetables makes them suitable for all types of home cooking and salads.
  • Golden Ball - mid-early variety with golden-yellow rounded shiny root crops weighing up to 400 g. The pulp is juicy and tender, excellent sweet taste, with a high content of vitamins and mineral salts.
  • Dutch white - early ripening variety, suitable for storage. Root vegetables are white with a dense and juicy pulp of a pleasant taste. They contain a rare wide-acting biostimulant - succinic acid.
  • Gribovskaya - mid-season turnip variety, ripens in 60 days. Root crops are large, dark purple in the upper part, yellow in the lower. The pulp is yellow, good taste. The variety is cold-resistant, well stored in winter.
  • Grandfather - early ripe variety, from full sprouting to technical ripeness - 45-50 days, with amicable crop formation. The root crop is rounded. The bark is two-colored, purple-white, smooth, shiny. Root vegetables are eaten raw, boiled and salted. Fresh root vegetables are very juicy, sweet and tasty, rich in vitamins and mineral salts. Recommended for outdoor cultivation.
  • A chidhood dream - mid-early variety, from germination to harvest 65-80 days. Root crops are round, yellow, weighing 150-200 g, with a thin, smooth skin and dense, juicy, yellow pulp. Excellent taste, high in vitamins and salts of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron. The value of the variety: cold resistance, uniformity of root crops, amicable crop formation and stable yield. Recommended to be consumed fresh, boiled, steamed, baked and salted.
  • Dunyasha - mid-season variety, the period from full sprouting to the beginning of technical ripeness 65-70 days, with valuable dietary and taste qualities. The root crop is round, yellow, smooth, with a thin skin. The pulp is golden yellow, juicy, tender. Root vegetables are sweet, without coarse fibers, contain many vitamins, trace elements and minerals. The variety is resistant to flowering, cold-resistant, shade-tolerant. Root weight 160-190 g.
  • Burnt sugar - a new variety of turnip, which combines high commercial qualities, rapid growth and healing properties. Root crops are aligned, cylindrical in shape with black skin and white pulp, do not form branches, do not crack.The average weight is 300 grams. The pulp is dense, crispy, juicy. Used fresh, for preparing salads, does not lose its quality for a long time.
  • Bug - early ripening variety, from full sprouting to technical ripeness - 45-50 days, with amicable crop formation. Recommended for outdoor cultivation. The root crop is rounded. The bark is two-colored, purple-white, smooth, shiny. The pulp is very juicy and crispy. The taste is excellent.
  • Golden ball - mid-early variety, from germination to harvesting 70-80 days. Root crops are round, yellow, weighing 60-150 g. The skin is thin, tender, smooth. The pulp is firm, very juicy. The value of the variety: cold resistance, unpretentious cultivation, uniformity of root crops and stable yield. It has a high content of vitamins C and B. It is widely used in folk medicine.
  • Karelian white meat - mid-season turnip variety. A root vegetable with a smooth green-purple rind. The pulp is juicy, white, slightly sharp. The variety is very productive, well stored in winter.
  • Comet - the variety is distinguished by the original shape of the root crop, pleasant taste, and high uniformity. The period from germination to harvest is 70–80 days. The root crop is cylindrical, with a thickening in the lower part, white, weighing 90–120 g.
  • Nurse - mid-season variety, 80-90 days from germination to technical ripeness. The root crop is flat-round, fleshy, yellow, weighing up to 200-250 g. The pulp is yellow, juicy, tender, without coarse fibers, contains a complex of vitamins, trace elements and minerals. The taste is high. Recommended for fresh salads, frying, stewing, baking, stuffing with meat and vegetables.
  • Little Red Riding Hood - mid-season variety, the period from germination to harvesting 65-70 days. The rosette of leaves is semi-erect, vigorous. The root crop is elongated, white, with a purple color at the top, weighing 200-250 g, with snow-white, juicy, delicate pulp, excellent taste. The value of the variety: disease resistance, flowering, unpretentiousness. Due to the high content of vitamins and minerals, the absence of starch, it is used in dietary nutrition, especially for diabetes and obesity. It is used fresh, boiled, steamed, baked.
  • Cake - mid-season variety, 80-90 days from germination to technical ripeness. The root crop is flat-round, fleshy, white, weighing up to 200 g. The pulp is tender, whitish, very juicy. The variety has a high taste. Recommended for consumption fresh, fried, baked, stewed or stuffed.
  • Lyre - an early ripening variety of turnip, ripens in 55 days. Root vegetables weighing up to 100 g. The pulp is white, juicy, very tasty.
  • moon - mid-early variety. The period from germination to harvest is 65–80 days. The root crop is round, yellow. The skin is thin, delicate, smooth. The pulp is firm, very juicy. Recommended for fresh consumption in the autumn-winter period. The variety is distinguished by cold resistance and evenness of root crops.
  • May white - an early variety of turnip for summer consumption. The root vegetable is globular, white, the flesh is white, very tasty.
  • May yellow green-headed 172 - early ripening variety of turnip. Root crops are flat, white in color, with green at the head. The flesh of the root vegetable is light yellow in color. The growing season is 70–75 days. The pulp is juicy, light yellow, with a pleasant taste.
  • Milanese white violet-headed - early ripening variety of turnip. Root crops are flat, large. Their color is purple in the upper part, white in the lower part. The pulp is white, sweet, very juicy, tender. The variety is unsuitable for winter storage of root crops.
  • Orbit - late ripening variety. Root vegetables of a beautiful shape and excellent taste. The period from germination to harvest is 110–120 days. A rounded root crop, white, weighing 400-500 g. Recommended for winter storage.
  • Petrovskaya 1 - an old mid-season turnip variety, the most common in gardens and vegetable gardens. It ripens in 60–65 days.Root crops are round-flat, with a pale green head. The pulp is yellow, firm, sweet. Root crops are suitable for long-term storage. For its excellent taste and yield, this ancient variety is still held in high esteem by gardeners.
  • Beanbag - an early ripe salad variety, the period from germination to technical ripeness is 45-60 days. Suitable for growing in protected and open ground. Root vegetable weighing 60-90 g, up to a maximum of 200 g, round or flat-round, white, with delicate skin, juicy, dense pulp and excellent taste. Root crops are immersed in the soil by 1/3, easily pulled out. The variety is shade-tolerant, cold-resistant, resistant to premature steming, bacteriosis. Universal use, good storage.
  • Presto - a very early variety of turnip, ripens 40–45 days after sowing. Root vegetables up to 8 cm in diameter, with juicy and tasty pulp.
  • Purple with a white tip - mid-season turnip variety, from germination to harvest 55-65 days. The root crop is rounded, pink-raspberry in color with a white tip, weighing 65-120 g, with white, dense, juicy, delicate pulp, piquant taste and a high content of minerals. Variety for growing in open and protected ground. Variety value: resistance to flowering, high yield and uniformity of root crops, suitability for long-term storage. Recommended to be consumed fresh, boiled, steamed, baked and salted. It is used for medicinal, dietary and baby food, especially useful for diabetes and obesity.
  • Early purple - an early ripening variety of foreign breeding turnip. Ripens in 50-60 days after germination. The root vegetable is round, 8–12 cm in diameter, white with a purple top and weighing 65–90 g. The pulp is snow-white, juicy, sweet, with a high content of potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron salts, excellent taste. The variety is suitable for growing in winter greenhouses. The value of the variety: harmonious yield of the crop, high uniformity of root crops and excellent taste. Recommended for fresh, boiled, steamed and baked consumption. It is used for medical, dietary and baby food, especially for diabetes and obesity.
  • Russian fairy tale - variety of medium early ripening period, from germination to harvesting 75-85 days. It is characterized by amicable crop formation. Root crops are rounded with a thin yellow skin. The pulp has excellent taste, juicy.
  • Russian size - this turnip, like from a fairy tale: the roots are golden-yellow, fleshy, reaching sizes up to 2 kg. The pulp is crispy, juicy, sweet, with a characteristic turnip flavor, full of useful substances.
  • Sapphire - early ripening variety, lettuce greens of which reaches consumer ripeness 30–35 days after the emergence of mass shoots. The leaves are large, dark green, without pubescence, juicy, tender, good taste. The variety is distinguished by a high content of ascorbic acid and carotene, is relatively resistant to the accumulation of nitrates, and has high cold resistance. Recommended for cultivation both in protected and open ground
  • Snow Maiden - a new early-ripening variety of lettuce turnip, resistant to low temperatures and flowering, shade-tolerant. The root crop is round, white, weighing up to 80 g. The pulp is white, very juicy and tasty. Root crops are intended for fresh consumption and are not subject to long-term storage. The variety is intended for growing in open ground and under film shelters. Leaves rich in vitamins and other useful substances are also eaten. You can sow at several times, from early spring to mid-July.
  • Snowball - mid-season variety, from germination to harvesting 75-85 days. Root crops are round, smooth, white, weighing 250-300 g. The pulp is white, juicy, semi-sharp, of excellent taste. The value of the variety: resistance to flowering, uniformity of root crops and high marketability of the crop, suitability for long-term storage.Recommended for fresh, boiled, steamed and baked consumption. Indispensable in medical and dietary nutrition.
  • Snowball - an early ripening variety, the period from germination to technical ripeness is 48-52 days. The root vegetable is round, white, weighing 60-90 g, up to a maximum of 200 g, with a delicate skin, juicy, dense pulp and excellent taste. Root crops are immersed in the soil by 1/3, easily pulled out. The variety is shade-tolerant, cold-resistant, resistant to premature steming, bacteriosis. Universal use, good storage.
  • Snowball - early ripening variety, ripens in 45-50 days. The roots are round, white, the flesh is dense, juicy.
  • Sprinter - an early ripe variety with smallish, slightly flattened white roots with a purple head. The pulp is white, juicy.
  • Tokyo - a very early ripening variety of leafy turnip, already 25-30 days after sowing, you can start cutting the delicate vitamin greens necessary in early spring. Forms a rosette with whole-edged rounded-oval leaves. The leaves are large, dark green, without pubescence, juicy, tender, with good taste, with a high content of ascorbic acid, from 61.5 to 95.0 mg /% and carotene - 11-16 mg /%. Cold-resistant and moisture-loving plant. To obtain a high quality harvest, it requires constant watering.
  • Tokyo Cross - an early ripe variety for spring crops. Root crops are small, white, spherical. They are harvested 6 weeks after sowing the seeds.
  • Pull-pull - medium late variety, the period from full germination to the beginning of technical ripeness 65-72 days, with valuable dietary and taste qualities. The root crop is round, yellow, smooth, with a thin skin. The pulp is golden yellow, juicy, tender. Root vegetables are sweet, without coarse fibers, contain many vitamins, trace elements and minerals. The mass of root crops is 120-200 grams. The variety is resistant to flowering, cold-resistant, shade-tolerant.
  • Pull push - mid-early variety, from germination to harvesting of root crops - 65-80 days. Root crops are flat-round, weighing 80-150 g. The bark is smooth, golden-yellow in color. The pulp is light yellow, juicy, sweet, rich in vitamins and minerals. It is used fresh and for the preparation of various home cooking dishes. The taste is excellent. Root crops have good keeping quality in the autumn-winter period.
  • Crunch - mid-early variety, from germination to harvest 65-75 days. Root crops are round, smooth, raspberry-pink with a white tip, weighing 100-120 g, with white dense, juicy, delicate pulp, excellent taste. The value of the variety: resistance to flowers and diseases, uniformity of root crops, amicable return of the crop. Suitable for use fresh, boiled, steamed and baked.

Turnip sowing dates

For summer consumption, turnips are sown in early spring, as soon as it will be possible to "climb" into the garden after the snow melts, but with the expectation that after the turnip sprouts there will be no night frosts.

Root crops intended for long-term winter storage, as well as mother plants, are obtained from the July sowing, which is carried out on the 5-10th. In the northern regions, it is necessary to choose such a time frame so that 85–90 days remain until the end of the growing season. Earlier dates will lead to overgrowth of root crops. In this case, they will be less tasty and will not be stored for a long time.

"Ural gardener", 2014, No. 10

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