Useful information

Secrets of growing clematis

Clematis has been cultivated in Western Europe since the 16th century. In Russia, they appeared at the beginning of the 19th century as greenhouse plants; active work on the cultivation and selection of clematis in our country began only in the middle of the 20th century.

All varieties are divided into groups:

Zhakman - large shrub vines with shoots 3-4 m long and a well-developed root system. The flowers are large, blue-violet-purple tones, odorless. They are distinguished by abundant and long flowering on the shoots of the current year. For the winter, the shoots are cut to the level of the soil or the bases of the shoots are left with 2-3 pairs of buds.

Viticella - shrub vines 3-3.5 m long. The flowers are open with a predominance of pink-red-purple velvety tones in color. They are characterized by lush and long flowering on the shoots of the current year. Shoots are cut for the winter.

Lanuginose - shrub vines with thin shoots up to 2.5 m long. The flowers are large, wide open, mostly light in color (white, blue, pink). They are distinguished by massive flowering on the shoots of the previous year. When pruning shoots in the fall of the next year, flowering begins in the second half of summer on the shoots of the current year.

Patens- shrub vines 3-3.5 m long. Flowers are open, single, 15 cm or more in diameter, color from light to bright blue-violet-purple, deep violet tones. Many varieties have double flowers. Blooming on shoots last year. Shoots should only be shortened in autumn, removing the faded part, and covered until spring.

Florida - shrub vines with shoots up to 3 m long. The flowers are open, of various colors with a predominance of light tones. Blooming on shoots last year. They should be shortened to 1.5-2 m in length and kept under cover during the winter. If they are cut low, weak flowering occurs from the second half of summer on the shoots of the current year.

Integrifolia - vigorous, climbing semi-shrubs up to 1.5 m high. The flowers are half-open, bell-shaped, up to 12 cm in diameter, of various colors. Bloom profusely in the summer on the shoots of the current year. Shoots are cut for the winter.

Depending on the size of the flower, there are small-flowered (up to 5 cm in diameter) and large-flowered (more than 5 cm in diameter) clematis. Large-flowered curly clematis include varieties and forms from the Jacqueman, Viticella, Lanuginoza, Patens groups. For bush large-flowered clematis - varieties and forms from the Integrifolia group. Small-flowered clematis are undemanding to growing conditions, give a lot of greenery and easily propagate by seeds, they are unusually graceful, bloom profusely, original seed heads adorn the plant in autumn and winter.

Clematis straight
Species clematis know little, but many of them are spectacular, unpretentious, grow quickly, and are resistant to drought and fungal diseases. The average duration of flowering of small-flowered clematis ranges from 2-2.5 weeks to 3-4 months. Some of them smell great, these are: Clematis of Armand, David, burning, straight, Manchu, Raeder, paniculate.

Clematis are light-loving plants. If there is not enough light, the flowering is weak; in the middle lane, it is best to plant them in sunny or slightly shaded areas at midday. In case of group plantings, the distance between the bushes should be at least 1 m. The wind breaks and confuses the shoots, damages the flowers, they are not planted on the wind. Clematis are very demanding on moisture, during their growth they need abundant watering. Wet, swampy areas with a high groundwater table (less than 1.2 m are not suitable for them). Waterlogging of the soil is dangerous not only in summer, but also in early spring during and after the snow melts.Clematis prefer fertile sandy loam or loamy soil, rich in humus, loose, from slightly alkaline to slightly acidic reaction.

Clematis can grow in one place for more than 20 years. Pits are dug under them with a size of at least 60x60x60 cm.To the top layer of earth, taken out of the pit and cleaned of the roots of perennial weeds, add 2-3 buckets of humus or compost, 1 bucket of peat and sand, 100-150 g of superphosphate, 200 g of full mineral fertilizer, preferably 100 g of bone meal, 150-200 g of lime or chalk, 200 g of ash. On light soils, more peat, leaf humus and clay are added.

Supports are extremely important for normal development, abundant and prolonged flowering of clematis. They should be not only comfortable for the plant, but also beautiful.

In spring, it is good to spill clematis with milk of lime (200 g of lime per 10 liters of water per square meter). In dry weather, clematis are watered not often, but abundantly, making sure that the stream of water does not fall into the center of the bush. Clematis are fed at least four times per season after irrigation with full mineral fertilizer with microelements at the rate of 20-40 g per 10 liters of water or a diluted fermented mullein (1:10). Mineral and organic dressings alternate. In the summer, once a month, plants are watered with a weak solution of boric acid (1-2 g) and potassium permanganate (2-3 g per 10 liters of water), and the bushes are also sprayed with urea (0.5 tablespoons per 10 liters of water). Since clematis can suffer from overheating and dryness of the soil, in the spring, after the first watering and loosening of the planting, it should be mulched. To protect the soil from overheating and to close the lower part of the shoots, clematis is “covered” with shrubs or summer plants. In the spring, only for the first time, the vines are directed along the support in the right direction and tied up. Otherwise, the growing shoots will intertwine so strongly that no forces will be able to untangle them. Only in the varieties of the Integrifolia group, shoots and leaves are deprived of the ability to wrap around supports, therefore they are tied up as they grow all summer. In the fall, before sheltering for the winter, clematis bushes are cut and carefully cleaned of old leaves. The first two or three years, young specimens require especially careful care: in the fall or early spring, well-rotted manure mixed with any potash and phosphorus fertilizer, as well as wood ash (a handful of each per bucket of humus) is poured onto the bushes, liquid fertilizing is done every 10- 15 days in small doses.

With proper shelter, clematis bushes can withstand frosts up to 40-45 °, but the main danger in winter and early spring is not frost, but waterlogging of the soil. In addition, after frequent thaws during the day and night frosts, layers of ice can form over the soil that can break the roots and destroy the center of tillering, so it is important to completely exclude the ingress of water in winter to the soil surface and the base of the bush. They cover the bushes when frosty weather sets in, the air temperature drops to -5 ... -7 degrees and the soil begins to freeze. In the middle lane, this falls on November. The bushes of the Zhakman, Vititsella and Integrifolia groups cut into one or two pairs of buds (10-15 cm) or to ground level are covered with dry soil or weathered peat, a mound with a diameter of 60-80 cm is formed above the plant.About 3-4 buckets are required for each plant ... Together with snow, such a shelter will reliably protect the root system of clematis from freezing. If you need to preserve the lashes in the varieties of the Lanuginoza, Patens and Florida groups, in addition to dry land, the bushes are covered with boards, spruce branches, and on top with pieces of roofing material or sheets of old iron. If the frosts are too strong or there is little snow, it is added to the bushes additionally. In the spring, the shelter is removed gradually, part of the peat is left until the night frosts leave.