The Greeks and Romans did not know about this plant, since it is found in the wild in Northern Europe. In Scandinavia, back in the 12th century, it was used as a vegetable. In the herbalists of the 16th century, it was recommended against the plague. The name of the plant in European languages is also related to this. Latin name of the genus Angelica comes from Latin angelus - an angel. This is associated with the fact that, according to European legends, during a great plague epidemic in Europe in 1374, the archangel Gabriel pointed to this plant as a means of salvation. In German, for example, angelica is called Engelwurz, the angelic root, or Heiliggeistwurzel, the root of the holy spirit. It was believed that it was necessary to wipe the skin with vinegar infused with angelica. Along the way, the same remedy is recommended for the evil eye and evil spirits. According to the second version, the name of the plant is associated with the fact that in European countries it blooms on the day of the Archangel Michael - May 8.
Angelica officinalis (syn. angelica drug, angelica drugstore, angelica ordinary) - Angelica archangelica (Archangelica officinalis) distributed in the European part of Russia, in the North Caucasus, in Western Siberia. It grows in the forest and steppe zone in flooded meadows, in swampy forests and near swamps. Sometimes it forms thickets. It is found in the wild in Northern Europe and the European part of Russia. In culture, it is grown in the countries of the European Union. In Asian countries, local species are used along with this species, but this is a separate conversation.
There are two subspecies, Angelica archangelica subsp. archangelica andAngelica archangelica subsp. litoralis, which differ in the shape of the root, peduncles, stipules and seeds.
Chemical composition and properties
Angelica root contains 0.35-1.3% of essential oil, the European Pharmacopoeia allows at least 0.2%. The essential oil contains β-pellandrene (13-28%), α-pellandrene (2-14%), α-pinene (14-31%). In addition, about 50 more components were found, including: monoterpenes (β-pinene, sabinene, δ3-carene, myrcene, limonene) and sesquiterpenes (β-bisabolene, bisabolol, β-caryophyllene). In addition, the raw material contains furocoumarins (angelin, bergapten, isoimperatrin, xanthoxin), coumarins (archangelicin, ostenol, ostol, umbelliferone), malic, valeric, tartaric, citric, angelic and fumaric acids, phenolcarboxylic acids (caffeic, chlorogenic) β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol arachinate, β-sitosterol palmitate) resins and flavonoids, as well as phenylpropanamides, which inhibit the development of Helicobacter piloricausing the development of stomach ulcers.
Angelica fruits contain about 1.5% essential oil, which is itself an expensive commercial product, as well as coumarins and furocoumarins (angelicin, aperin, bergapten, xanthoxin).
Dried fruits are used in folk medicine for indigestion, kidney disease and rheumatoid diseases.
The essential oil from fruits consists mainly of terpene compounds: α-pinene (11%), β-pellandrene, and also caryophyllene. In addition, coumarins are also found in the oil.
At the same time, its essential oil is obtained from the roots by hydrodistillation. It is usually obtained from dried roots, the yield is 0.35-1.0%. 90% of the essential oil consists of terpenes (terpinene - 80-90%, β-pellandrene - 13-20%, α-pellandrene - 2-14%, α-pinene - 14-31%).
In some cases, leaves are used that contain about 0.1% of essential oil, which includes β-pellandrene (33.8%), α-pinene (27%), β-pinene (29.3%), as well as furocoumarins (angelicin, bergapten, imperorin, oxyudanine). In folk medicine, it is used for digestive disorders and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The daily dose - 1 tablespoon per glass of water - is brewed and taken in three doses half an hour before meals.
In some cases, in folk medicine, the herb is used as a diuretic.
The main type of medicinal raw material is the roots, which are used as an antispasmodic, diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory agent. Indications for use: lack of appetite, dyspeptic symptoms, mild gastrointestinal spasms, a feeling of fullness and bloating.
Angelica roots are used in alcoholic beverage production for the production of liqueurs, in particular, Benedictine, Chartreuse, and also the Erofeich bitter.
Decoction and infusion of angelica roots and rhizomes are used for nervous exhaustion, acute and chronic neuralgia, rheumatism, gout, lumbago, for catarrhal symptoms of the upper respiratory tract, for laryngitis, bronchitis, with excessive fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract, chronic gastritis with secretory insufficiency.
Infusion prepared from 1 tablespoon of chopped roots and a glass of boiling water, infusing the mixture for 1 hour. After straining, the infusion is taken in 100 ml 3 times a day for hypocidal gastritis, to enhance the motor function of the stomach, with insomnia at night.
With dyskinesia of the biliary tract, the roots of angelica should be crushed into powder and taken 1 coffee spoon 3 times a day with warm water. This agent increases the secretion of bile, enhances peristalsis and suppresses fermentation and putrefactive processes in the intestines. Angelica can be used by mixing with equal parts by weight of burdock roots and agaric grass.
Outwardly it is better to apply alcohol tincture from seeds... The use of seeds in this case is explained by the higher content of essential oil in them, which has a therapeutic effect on joint diseases. 3 tablespoons of seeds are poured over 200 ml of vodka and insisted in a dark place for 2 weeks. The resulting tincture is filtered and used for rubbing diseased joints and with radiculitis.
For internal intake, the crushed roots are infused in vodka in a ratio of 1:10 for 2 weeks. The strained tincture is taken 30-40 drops 3 times a day for joint diseases.
In a mixture with other plants, angelica is used for prostatitis and as a tonic.
Angelica is very hardy and its cultivation does not meet any problems. But at the same time, it makes high demands on soil fertility, depth of the arable horizon and moisture.
The varieties known in Europe are Sächsische (Germany, 1945), Jizerka (Czechoslovakia, 1952), Budakalaszi (Hungary, 1959). Currently, good breeding samples with a high content of essential oil have been obtained in Bavaria.
Angelica is grown both by direct sowing into the ground and through seedlings. Sowing is carried out with seeds freshly harvested in July, until they fall into a state of dormancy. Seedlings appear in about 4 weeks.
For growing seedlings, periods from mid-February to early April are preferable with preliminary keeping the seeds for 10-14 days in a cold and ventilated room, but without freezing.
After the emergence of seedlings, liquid fertilizers, 0.1% solution of complex mineral fertilizers are applied after 2 weeks.
It is possible to grow angelica with late summer sowing. With this sowing, some of the plants can bloom next year. In this case, you need to remove the peduncles.
Diseases and pests: powdery mildew and downy mildew, rhizoctinosis, rust. Among the pests there are spider mites, horseflies, and vole mice.
Before digging up the roots, cut the aboveground mass as low as possible. Root digging can be done with a potato digger, beet harvester. They dig in at a depth of at least 30 cm. The yield ranges from 12 to 22 t / ha of fresh roots.
In Europe, in the Alps, there is a forest angelica, or angelica(Angelica sylvestris), whose roots contain essential oil, coumarins and furocoumarins.
It is a biennial herb with a thick, short rhizome and an erect, hollow stem inside with a red coloration at the articulation of the leaves. Plant height is usually about 1.5 m, but on fertile, loose and well-moisturized soils it can reach 2.5 m. Basal leaves are double- or thrice-pinnate, upper leaves with a sheath hugging the stem. It blooms in June-July of the second year of life with white flowers collected in complex umbrellas. The seeds ripen in August and are fragrant oval two-seedlings. All parts of the plant have a specific smell.
It grows in deciduous, small-leaved and mixed forests, in wet meadows.The plant does not form thickets and is found in single specimens.
Just like the angelica officinalis, almost all parts are used in it - roots, shoots, fruits. In folk medicine, it is used for coughs, digestive disorders and spasms, as well as for neuroses and insomnia. Externally used for pain in the joints in the form of rubbing, compresses and baths.
Infusion prepared from 1 tablespoon of chopped roots and 100 ml of cold boiled water. Insist for 2 hours, then add another 200 ml of water and heat in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes. Take 50 ml for bronchitis and general weakness.
For biliary dyskinesia, use infusion 20 g of roots per 1 liter of boiling water, which is infused for 2 hours. After straining, the infusion is taken 1 glass 3 times a day, like tea.
Angelica forest increases blood clotting, increases the secretion of gastric juice and therefore is contraindicated in thrombosis and people suffering from hyperacid (with increased acidity of gastric juice) gastritis.
Photo by Rita Brilliantova and from the GreenInfo.ru forum