Useful information

Anemone crown: cultivation and reproduction

Anemone crown (Anemona coronaria) belongs to the family of buttercups (Ranunculaceae). Distributed in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor, introduced into the culture in 1600. Modern garden forms are created as a result of long-term selection on the basis of plants brought to Europe from Asia Minor. Widespread in Italy, southern France, England, Holland, Germany. In our country, studies of crown anemones are being conducted at VNIITSISK (Sochi). This is a zone of humid subtropics, where anemone can be grown both in open and in protected ground without heating costs in winter. In spring, this plant adorns Sochi flower gardens along with such well-known crops as tulips, daffodils and hyacinths, creating a special festive outfit.

Anemone can be used for distillation on specific dates. The long period of receipt of cut products makes them highly profitable and allows them to be included in crop rotation.

Crown anemone is a perennial herb belonging to ephemeroid geophytes with a short period of development, adapted to life in conditions of moderate moisture. Ephemeroids, which form a generative bud in the late spring period of the year preceding flowering and store nutrients in a tuberous thickening, begin growing very early in the spring. When introduced into culture, a. the crown retains the features of early spring development and subsequent long dormancy, when the aerial part completely dies off. Vitality is maintained thanks to the tubers carrying the buds of renewal - vegetative and generative. With age, the weight of the tubers increases, the contours become uneven, grooves and protrusions appear.

The leaves are petiolar, pinnately dissected, collected in a basal rosette. The stem is simple, slightly pubescent, 20–40 cm long, bears a single flower. The flowers are relatively large, 5–10 cm in diameter, of various colors, and have a weak aroma. The fruit is multi-root, the seeds are small (1 g - 1100-1500 pcs.), Mostly pubescent.

Anemone Crowned AdmiralAnemone crown Svelena

According to the garden classification, the crown anemone is divided into three groups according to the degree of terry: De Caen includes varieties with simple flowers, St. Brigid - with semi-double and double.

Crown anemone is a light-loving plant that tolerates partial shade for a short day (12 hours or less), not very heat-demanding. The flower can withstand a short-term drop in temperature to minus 5 ° C, and the leaves - to minus 10-12 °. The plant does not tolerate prolonged severe frosts, especially in the absence of snow cover. Therefore, in areas with harsh winters, autumn plantings should be covered or tubers should be planted in spring. Anemone does not tolerate waterlogging of the soil, especially during the cold growing season, but with prolonged drought during flowering, watering is required. This perennial plant can be grown as an annual.

Reproduction and agricultural technology

The crown anemone is bred by seeds and vegetatively. In the first case, there is a significant splitting of traits in the offspring. Therefore, to preserve the variety, only vegetative propagation is recommended - by divisions of three-, four- or five-year-old tubers, which are easily broken.

With vegetative and seed reproduction, it is necessary to observe crop rotation, returning the crop to its original place no earlier than after 4-6 years. Otherwise, the tubers are more strongly affected by pests and diseases. It is unacceptable to use the same substrate in protected ground for several years in a row. It is suitable for reuse only after thorough steaming or chemical treatment.

Anemone crown SineglazkaAnemone crown, hybrid form

With seed reproduction, mother plants are selected during the flowering period. To avoid unwanted pollination, all flowers on the remaining plants are removed. The collection of seeds begins when they begin to separate in the upper part of the seed.The latter are laid out in a layer no more than 2 cm thick and dried for 7-10 days, stirring occasionally. Then the seeds are collected in paper or cloth bags and stored in a cool dry place.

To increase germination, stratification is carried out. For 3-4 weeks before sowing, the seeds are kept in a refrigerator at a temperature of 6-9 °. Sown at the rate of 5-7 g / m2 from August to February, depending on the growing area, the depth of seeding is 1-2 cm. It is desirable that the temperature during the germination period was 12-15 °, the soil is moderately and constantly moistened. Strong waterlogging or drying out should not be allowed. On sunny days, seedlings need to be shaded. After germination, the temperature should be kept at 10-13 ° or 7-10 °. Higher values ​​shorten the growing season of plants and do not contribute to an increase in the mass of the forming tuber.

Fertility after floweringSeeds separated from the receptacle

To get flowering plants, seeds are sown in August – September, followed by picking of seedlings in the phase of 2-3 true leaves according to the scheme 7 x 20 or 10 x 20 cm. During the picking period of seedlings, the air temperature should be at least + 10–12 ° С, but not higher than + 16 °. It takes 5-6 months from sowing seeds to flowering.

For planting tubers, it is better to choose areas that are well lit, protected from strong and cold winds. The surface should be flat or with a slight slope (no more than 5 °) and the occurrence of groundwater at a depth of at least 60 cm. It is necessary to provide for the possibility of irrigation, especially on low-moisture soils and in areas with a lack of rainfall during the growing season of plants. In places with high humidity, to prevent stagnant water and soak tubers, they should be planted in high ridges.

SeedsThree to four year old tubers

Crown anemone prefers rich, not very dense soils with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction (pH 6.0–7.0), sufficiently cultivated and water-absorbing, but well-drained so that there is no danger of waterlogging in winter. It is better to use heavy loam mixed with organic matter.

For planting tubers, the soil is prepared in advance: the first plowing or digging to a depth of 30–35 cm with the introduction of humus or chicken droppings (their number depends on the type of soil and the degree of cultivation) is carried out 3 months before planting, the second - 2–3 weeks to a depth 20-25 cm with the addition of potassium-phosphorus fertilizers. The rate of their introduction is the same as for bulbous crops at the rate of 50g / m2. Fresh manure can be applied one year before planting. In areas with high humidity, ridges are made 110–120 cm wide, 15–20 cm high, at a distance of 30–40 cm from each other.

Crown anemone can also be grown in greenhouses on shelves, in boxes and pots. Use any loose, fertile, water-permeable, moisture-consuming substrate.

To obtain cut products, it is better to take 1–3-year-old tubers with a diameter of 1–3 cm, a flattened round shape, with a clean (no voids) base. Small tubers need to be grown, and large old ones are used in urban landscaping. To speed up germination, before planting, they are soaked in a pink solution of potassium permanganate for 18-24 hours. But it is better to hold them in running water for 4–6 hours, and then 30 minutes in a fungicide solution (0.4%). Also, a good result can be obtained by immersing the tubers for 30 minutes in hot water (45–50 °), then for the same time in a fungicide solution (0.4%). Fungicide treatment is carried out to protect plants from fungal diseases in the first two months. When planting late in cold greenhouses and open ground, tubers are not soaked in order to avoid rotting.

To speed up flowering or to get an earlier cut, the tubers can be pre-germinated before planting (for 15–20 days at 6–9 °) in well-moistened peat until shoots with a height of 0.3–0.5 cm appear. Subsequently, these tubers can also be store up to 2 weeks and transport by cooling them gradually within a week to minus 1 °.

The time for planting tubers in open ground depends on the growing area.Since the rooting and development of plants should take place at a temperature close to the optimum, in each zone the planting time will be different. The optimum air temperature during the rooting period is 9–12 °. At lower values, the rooting process of tubers slows down, and at higher values, a weak root system is formed. In the zone of humid subtropics, the optimal planting dates are the second half of October – first decade of November, in more northern regions - 1–1.5 months earlier.

Before planting, the tubers are sorted by diameter (0.5-1.0 cm, 1-1.5 cm and more than 1.5 cm) and, depending on their size, are placed according to the scheme 10 x 20 cm, 15 x 20 cm or 20 x 20 cm with a planting rate of 50, 30 or 25 pcs / m2, respectively. Tubers 0.5–1.5 cm in size are planted to a depth of 4–5 cm, larger tubers by 6–8 cm, depending on the texture of the soil. Tubers with a diameter of less than 0.5 cm, as well as the baby is better to grow in protected ground (planting pattern 5x20 cm, depth - 3-4 cm). At the optimum temperature, seedlings appear in 24–26 days.

When growing cuttings in greenhouses with a controlled microclimate, before the buds appear, the temperature should be in the range of 10-14 °. During the period of flower formation, it is regulated depending on the intensity of the illumination. So, at low illumination it is desirable to maintain 8-10 °, with an increase in illumination - 12-14 °. In low light and high temperatures, long peduncles with small flowers (3-4 cm in diameter) develop. With a lack of heat, short peduncles with large corollas are formed. With good lighting during the flowering period, an increase of up to 18 ° is permissible. Higher temperatures impair the development of the rosette and flower buds and shorten the flowering period. At night, the air temperature should be 3-4 ° lower than during the day.

Planting care consists in maintaining optimal soil moisture, fertilizing, loosening, processing against pests and diseases. When growing crown anemones in greenhouses or in unheated greenhouses, the soil should be moderately moist before germination, especially during the cold season. After emergence and until the end of flowering, watering is increased, which ensures the formation of long and strong peduncles. With a lack of moisture in the soil, shortened, thin peduncles are formed.

During the growth period, the culture is responsive to liquid mineral and organic fertilizing. Organic matter is given in the form of diluted fermented manure: 10 liters per 18–20 plants or per 0.8 m2. Mineral fertilizers are best applied in the form of a solution (1–2%) at the rate of 10 liters per 0.8 m2. The NPK ratio is 1: 0.6: 1.7. Before flowering, top dressing is carried out 2-3 times a month, and during dissolution - 1-2 times. With a powerful growth of leaves, nitrogen fertilizers should be excluded.

Anemone Crown Mr. FokkerAnemone Crowned Sylphide

When grown outdoors at low air temperatures, the amount of dressing can be reduced to 3-4 during the growing season. The first is carried out after germination, the second - during budding, the third and fourth - during the flowering period. It is necessary to exclude the ingress of fertilizer on the leaves, and if this happens, then it must be washed off with water. In addition, you can use dry mineral fertilizers, but in very small doses (10–20 g / m2), with the obligatory incorporation and watering. Before applying them, the soil is moistened.

Flowering a. crown lasts from 1.5 to 3-4 months, depending on the timing of planting, the size of the tuber, air temperature, soil moisture and air. One plant can form 5–20 peduncles. When growing anemones in an unregulated microclimate, their greatest number is formed in the spring months (March – May). Cutting of flower products is carried out in the morning or in the evening, before watering the plants. On hot days - in the stage of a colored closed bud, and on cool days - in a half-release. In winter, it is best to cut the flowers when they are fully open. Damage must be avoided, non-marketable flowers must be removed so that they do not become a source of fungal infection.

Limiting factors for the end of the growing season a. crown - temperature and moisture in the soil.In the heat (above 25 °) and with insufficient soil moisture, the plants cease to bloom, their aboveground part begins to die off. When the leaf rosette dries out by 50–70%, they begin to dig up the tubers. The latter, together with the leaves (if they do not separate), are placed in boxes in 1-2 layers and put to dry under a canopy or in a room with ventilation. After 7–10 days, the tubers are cleaned of soil, leaves and roots, calibrated, diseased and stored in a dry, cool room. At a temperature of 12-17 ° and a relative humidity of 60%, tubers can be stored for 3-4 years without losing the ability to germinate.

Diseases and pests

The most common diseases are botrytis, or gray rot, root rot, oversporosis, rust, viral infections. Among the pests - aphids, slugs, scoops, leaf bugs, nematodes, bear. To reduce the risk of developing diseases and pests, it is necessary to regularly carry out the following measures:

  • remove and destroy all plant residues;
  • observe the watering regime, carry out regular loosening;
  • avoid mechanical damage to plants during soil cultivation or cutting flowers;
  • do not thicken the planting;
  • strictly adhere to the alternation of crops in crop rotation, when re-using the substrate, steam or disinfect;
  • carry out balanced feeding with a predominance of potassium and a moderate nitrogen content;
  • maintain an optimal temperature and humidity regime in greenhouses, depending on the phase of plant development and illumination;
  • to fight sucking pests - carriers of viral diseases.
Crown anemone

Literature

1. Babunashvili V.V., Korobov V.I., Kozina V.V. Anemone crown - a valuable flower culture / V.V. Babunashvili, V.I. Korobov, V.V. Kozina // Gardening and viticulture of Moldova, 1986. - No. 11. - P. 17.

2. Visascheva L.V., Sokolova T.A. Industrial floriculture. - Moscow, Agropromizdat, 1991 .-- S. 275-280.

3. Forcing bulbous and bulbous flower crops. / Ed. IN AND. Bolgov. - Sochi, 2001 .-- S. 66-72.

4. Kozina V.V. Recommendations for growing early spring cuttings of crown anemones in greenhouses and film shelters without additional technical means of heating. - Sochi, 1998 .-- 16 p.

5. Kravtsov I.A., Evsyukova T.V., Kozina V.V. and other Recommendations for assessing the quality of flower products. - Sochi, 2009 .-- S. 14-21.

6. Kashcheeva Yu.P. Crown anemones. - Floriculture, 1961. - No. 5. - P. 22.

7. Kozina V.V. Anemone. / IN AND. Bolgov otv. editor. Sat. Uncommon flower cultures. - Sochi, 1998 .-- S. 13-19.

8. Krestnikova A., Kitaeva L. Anemones. / A. Krestnikova, L. Kitaeva - Flowers at any time of the year. - M .: "Moscow worker", 1974. - S. 31-43.

9. Razina E. and Razina A. Crown anemones near Moscow. / E. Razin and A. Razin. - Floriculture, 1972. - No. 8 - S. 26-27.

Photo by the author

The magazine "Floriculture" No. 3-2015

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