Most of us are familiar with hazelnuts. The collective name “hazelnuts” is understood as high-yielding and high-quality selective forms and interspecific hybrids of hazel (hazel), mainly common hazel, large hazel (Lombard), Pontic hazel and variegated hazel.
Man used hazel fruits for food in ancient times. The hazel tree culture originally originated on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. The Circassians bred it already in the III-IV centuries. BC. From here he came to the Mediterranean countries. Later, the culture spread to other European countries. As a result of centuries of selection and interspecific hybridization of hazel, this remarkable nut culture was obtained. But in our conditions, hazelnuts can be capricious, and then hazel will help out.
These assorted hazel
Common hazel is found in our forests (Corylusavellana) - shrub from the birch family (Betulaceae) up to 5-7 m high. Its leaves are alternate, broadly oval, with a cordate base, pointed at the apex, double-toothed at the edges, dark green, hairy, rough on the upper side, light green, more densely pubescent on the lower side. The plant is monoecious, wind-pollinated. Male inflorescences, consisting of numerous flowers, winter in open earring buds. In early spring, before the leaves bloom, they open and dust for 3-6 days. Female flowers are collected in two-flowered inflorescences, surrounded by leafy scales and look like buds. The pollen of this plant is a strong allergen. It contains nitrogen-containing compounds and flavonoids derived from quercetin.
Fruits are single-seeded nuts with a woody shell, surrounded by a leaf-like wrapper (ply).
It is widespread in the central and southern zone of European Russia, including the Caucasus. It grows among thickets of shrubs, in light mixed and deciduous forests (especially oak, linden, hornbeam and beech) as an undergrowth, on forest edges, clearings and clearings. In the mountains it rises to the mid-mountain, and sometimes the upper-mountain belt. Often forms thickets of considerable area.
In addition to it, another species is found in the Caucasus - tree hazel (Corylus colurna) ... People call it Constantinople nut, Byzantine nut, Turkish nut, bear nut. This species can be found on the slopes of the mountains and in the gorges of the Sochi region of the Krasnodar Territory, in Teberda and Dagestan. It is rare, mainly in inaccessible places. She is listed in the Red Book of the RSFSR.
Treelike hazel is a tree 20-25 m high with a dense wide-pyramidal crown, rounded or ovoid-oval leaves 7-12 cm long, 5-9 cm wide, narrowed to the apex and short-pointed, bisexual along the edge. Fruits are clustered in 3-8; the plyus (envelope) is velvety, wide open, much larger than the nut and repeatedly dissected into narrow curved lobes. Nuts are small, squeezed from the sides, with a very thick and hard shell.
Other types of hazel grow on the territory of Russia, the fruits of which are eaten: Siebold hazel (Corylus sieboldiana), variegated hazel (Corylus heterophylla) - found in Siberia and Primorye), Manchurian hazel (Corylus mandshurica) - found in the Far East, and many others.
It's all about phenols
Leaves, nut shells and bark of young shoots are used as medicinal raw materials for common hazel and tree hazel. The leaves are harvested in the first half of summer, dried by spreading them in a thin layer in a dry ventilated area. The bark is harvested from young shoots in May - June, when it is easily separated from the wood. Dry it in the sun or in attics.
The bark contains essential oil with a vasoconstrictor effect, triterpenoids (betulin - 0.2%), tannins (2.5-10.8%), including flobaphenes, tannins, in general, a whole range of various phenolic compounds. The leaves contain aldehydes (hexene-2-al-1), essential oil (it contains paraffins, palmitic acid), vitamin C, carotene, tannins (7.7-11.6%), flavonoids (quercitrin, myricitrin), phenolcarboxylic acids (chlorogenic, etc.). Its kernels contain up to 72% oil, up to 20% proteins, up to 8% carbohydrates, 2-3% mineral salts and vitamins A and B.400 g of hazelnut kernels provide the daily calorie requirement of an adult. Non-drying hazel oil, excellent taste, easily absorbed by the body. It can be used as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent in the treatment of atherosclerosis, as well as in perfumery, painting, for the production of candles and soaps. It is a good base for aromatherapy.
Common and tree hazel are used in medicine in almost the same way.
And the nuts are not simple ...
As mentioned above, almost the entire plant is used for medicinal purposes, but for very different diseases. Let's start with the most delicious, with the nucleoli.
As we already mentioned, it is advisable to include nuts in the diet for people prone to sclerosis. In folk medicine, nuts are often used against urolithiasis, and nuts with honey are used for rheumatism, anemia and as a general tonic.
As a cough suppressant, nuts are used as follows. Take 1-2 handfuls of peeled nuts, crush them in a mortar, mix with honey, diluted with an infusion of some antitussive plant, such as thyme or oregano, and take a dessert spoon every 30 minutes.
Oil mixed with egg white treats burns. It is a good remedy for strengthening hair. The oil is rubbed into the scalp in a similar way to castor oil. And if you add some essential oil with a cosmetic effect, for example, orange, chamomile, rose, lavender or ylang-ylang, then the healing effect will increase. Sometimes it is taken against worms (roundworm). In Georgia, nuts are sometimes used as a carminative and to improve milk separation in lactating women. In Azerbaijan, eyebrows and eyelashes are dyed with burnt dry hazelnuts.
Shells can also be used. Nut shell extract is considered a good remedy for prostate adenoma. Pour the crushed shell of 1 kg of nuts with 2 liters of water and boil over low heat until 1 liter of broth remains, strain and add 1 kg of honey. Take this extract 30 ml 3 times a day.
... leaves and bark too
In Bulgarian folk medicine, an infusion of leaves or bark of young shoots of hazel is also recommended for use in case of prostatic hypertrophy. Prepare the infusion as follows. 1 table. pour a spoonful of crushed raw materials with 1 glass of boiling water, leave for 20 minutes, strain). Take 1-2 tablespoons several times a day before meals.
In addition, laboratory studies have shown the antioxidant effect of the bark of young branches.
Outwardly concentrated in European medicine infusion of shoot bark used for hemorrhoidal bleeding and varicose ulcers. This broth is especially effective in the form of microclysters or sitz baths.
Inside root bark in the form of a tincture used in French medicine for heavy periods. Insist 30 g of bark in ½ l of vodka and take 30 drops 3 times a day before meals.
In early spring it is recommended to prepare earrings, which were used in European medicine as a remedy for epilepsy. With dysfunctions in women and delayed menstruation, take equally male inflorescences ("earrings") of hazel and walnut, and fennel fruits. Pour 20 g of the mixture into 1 liter of boiling water and boil for 1 minute. Add 6 tablespoons of honey. Drink 100 g during the day.
In folk medicine, hazel preparations are used for acute and chronic prostatitis, as well as for prostate adenoma. In a mixture with other plants, hazel leaves are used for prostate adenoma.
An example of a fairly simple collection can be the following: Mix in equal parts a leaf of hazel, black currant and thyme herb. Pour 1 tablespoon of the mixture with a glass of boiling water, leave for 30 minutes, drink the infusion warm at one time, preferably in the morning.
In case of prostatitis, hazel leaves are combined in collections with anti-inflammatory plants and have antimicrobial effects.
Bark mixed in equal parts with parsley roots is used for retention and painful urination.
An infusion of leaves and bark of hazel is used for varicose veins, phlebitis and periphlebitis, trophic ulcers of the leg and capillary hemorrhages.
To prepare an infusion of leaves, pour 2 tablespoons of crushed raw materials with 0.5 liters of boiling water, leave for 2 hours, strain. Take 1/2 cup 4 times daily before meals.
A decoction of the leaves is prepared from 2 tablespoons of crushed raw materials, which are poured into 0.5 liters of boiling water, boiled for 10 minutes, filtered. It is recommended for prostate adenoma to drink instead of water without a norm.
Decoction of the bark. 1 tablespoon of crushed raw materials pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, boil for 10 minutes, insist until cooled, drain. Take 1/2 cup 4 times daily before meals.
In some countries, an oil extract of the leaves is used to treat neurodermatitis, eczema, epidermophytosis and localized streptococcal skin lesions.
Useful, practical and beautiful
Hazelnut fatty oil tastes good and is easily absorbed by the body. It is eaten and also used in paint and varnish production. And from the oil cake remaining after pressing, they make halva. Eating nuts fresh or toasted is widespread. Roasted nuts are very tasty; they are usually baked in ovens at a temperature of about 110 °, as a result of which the nuts acquire a peculiar taste. Kernels are a chain raw material for the food industry. They are used along with almonds in the manufacture of chocolate, sweets, cakes, pastries and other confectionery products.
The shell is used in industry to obtain high-quality linoleum, activated carbon, etc.
Light and beautiful hazel wood is used for joinery and turning products. It is characterized by lightness, strength and fine-grained thickness. Elastic shoots are used for weaving baskets, hedges and making hoops for barrels.
And for lovers of aesthetics and landscape creativity, we recommend that you have a red-leaved form of this plant on your site. Not only tasty, but also beautiful.