The end, the beginning, see the articles: Forcing tulips from January to March, Varieties of tulips for forcing, Varieties of tulips for forcing in pots, Forcing tulips. Techniques for accelerating flowering, Forcing tulips. Cutting and storage.
If you have chosen the right varieties, spent the cooling period and forcing itself, the losses due to substandard should not exceed 5%. If this figure is higher, it's time to analyze the errors.
Deviation from the established regime at any of the stages of forcing negatively affects the quality of flowering plants, and a gross violation leads to damage and death of flower rudiments in the bulbs.
1. Violation of the cooling period, temperature fluctuations leads to the formation of deformed flowers or a complete lack of flowering.
2. If the cooling period is insufficient, plants develop short stems and the formation of "blind buds" is possible, i. e. death of flowers. This often happens when trying to forcing late varieties in January-February. The correct selection of varieties is very important in this case.
It has been experimentally established that cooling at + 90C increases the stem height by 13 cm. A short cooling period (2-6 weeks) at + 50C leads to a large number of non-flowering plants, a slowdown in stem growth during the flowering period and discoloration of flowers.
3. Cooling period too long stimulates growth processes and is accompanied by lengthening and a decrease in the strength of the stem.
4. Temperature rise during the cooling period. Interrupting the cooling period for 3 weeks can cause the death of all flowers (“blind buds”).
An increase in temperature during the cooling period to +15, +20, + 250C for 1, 2, 3 weeks delays flowering by 3-15 days.
5. Lack of control over the temperature regime during the cooling period. When cooling is carried out in the basement, and not in special chambers, due to temperature fluctuations in the open air, the temperature may not drop from December 15 to + 2 + 30C. This results in poor plant quality and inability to plan flowering times. With this cooling method, varieties should be used for which the cooling period does not exceed 13-16 weeks.
6. Temperature rise during distillation up to + 24 + 260WITH causes damage to the tepals and deterioration of the quality of flowers. Temperatures above + 200C can cause topping - stem fragility. A watery constriction appears on the stem and the flower hangs as if broken.
7. Use of defective planting material, some diseases, as well as violation of the temperature regime, contribute to the formation of "blind" buds.
In the presence of the sick fusariz bulbs that actively emit ethylene, all plants in the box form curved, thickened and deformed roots and do not bloom. The negative effect of ethylene is associated with the temperature regime: at + 5 + 90C, the activity of the causative agent of fusarium is low and little ethylene is released; but at + 20 + 230C, the disease progresses and gas is released intensively. Therefore, it is not recommended to set the temperature above + 15 + 200C during the active growing season. Diseased plants can be distinguished by growth retardation, deformations, and an unpleasant sweetish smell of decay. Such plants must be removed along with roots and a clod of earth. Waterlogging, stagnant water contribute to the development of the disease and its spread to neighboring specimens.
Ethylene, along with mites, also causes heart rot: the perianth does not develop under the influence of gas, and the stamens are exposed (open arrows are formed). Ticks gain free access to the flower and infect the stamens, which leads to the disease.
8. Lack of calcium. It is observed during the period of active vegetation of plants: at the beginning of flowering or later in the form of drooping of peduncles, topping.For prophylaxis, it is recommended to water tulips in the ground during the period of growing bulbs for distillation with a 1.5% solution of calcium nitrate. Calcium nitrate can be applied both before planting for distillation, and during the period of distillation itself (0.2% solution).
9. Insufficient rooting (too low temperature during the cooling period, damage to the bottom of the bulb, etc.) causes a violation of the pigmentation of flowers - uneven color, pale tops of the petals.
10. Overgrown plants at the time of the addition, they acquire similar violations.
Thus, in forcing, the correct choice of varieties, healthy planting material and the correct adherence to the cooling and attachment regimes are of decisive importance.