Useful information

Decorative apple trees from Michurinsk

As a result of many years of breeding work at the Department of Fruit Growing of MichGAU, Professor V.I. Budagovsky and his followers obtained winter-hardy, low-growing clonal stocks of an apple tree. Most of them have anthocyanin color of leaves, flowers and fruits, therefore they can also be used as varieties of ornamental apple trees. Highlighted hybrid forms Michdekor 2, Michdekor 5, Michdekor 6, Michdekor 7, which have a high decorative flowering and are distinguished by good performance in the mother liquor of vertical layers (rooting score 3.2 - 3.8; cuttings yield 3.2 - 8.2, of which standard 1.5 - 4.

Ornamental apple-tree Michdekor 6

The flowering and fruiting of an apple tree will leave few people indifferent. It can be planted singly and in groups (alternating, for example, red and green-leaved forms), in alleys or free hedges. Apple trees grown in the form of trellises, cordons, garden bonsai are very interesting.

I am especially promising as ornamental trees. Siberian (Malus bаccata), I am. Manchu (M. mandshurica), I am. dreamy (M. spectabilis), I am. profusely flowering (M. floribunda), I am. Nedzvetsky (M.niedzwetskiana) and etc.

Today, there are about 200 ornamental apple varieties, which differ in crown shape, foliage color, shape, color and size of flowers and fruits, as well as winter hardiness and vigor.

The overwhelming majority of cultivars used today in Russia are of foreign origin, and not all of them are adapted to the climatic conditions of a particular region of our country. In the State Register of Breeding Achievements, approved for use in the Russian Federation, 11 varieties of ornamental apple trees of domestic selection are registered.

Apple trees can be used in urban landscaping, because they tolerate gas pollution and dustiness in the air [1].On Krasnaya Street - one of the central ones in Krasnodar - a whole alley made of I has been planted. Nedzvetsky, in the park near the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow, a Chinese woman (M. prunifolia) grew, apple trees are also found in the landscaping of other cities (Tyumen, Naberezhnye Chelny, etc.)

I am considered to be one of the most decorative. Nedzvetsky. The French gardener L. Tillier believed that she had no equal in the ornamental gardening of Europe [2]. The purple color of the leaves and fruits is due to the anthocyanin pigment, which, unlike other apple species, is synthesized in it during the entire growing season.

In our country, this apple tree was the first to be used in breeding by I.V. Michurin. Among the varieties he received was ‘Red Standard’ [3].

For a long time, a remarkable scientist and person, Professor V.I. Budagovsky (1910-1975). As a result of many years of breeding work, he and his followers obtained winter-hardy, weakly growing clonal rootstocks of an apple tree (‘Paradizka Budagovskiy’, 54-118, 62-396, 57-491, 57-490, 57-545, etc.). Many of them are characterized by anthocyanin coloration, since Valentin Ivanovich used the ‘Red Standard’ variety as one of the parental forms during hybridization.

International RHS scale

When the authors of this article began their work in 2001 in the laboratory of low-growing clonal rootstocks at the Department of Fruit Growing, MichGAU, they were interested not only in the “rootstock”, but also in the decorative qualities of the apple tree. Later (2006–2011), work in this direction was systematized, the task was set: to evaluate the stock hybrid apple tree stock for decorativeness.

The method for evaluating ornamental apple trees has not yet been developed, therefore, in our studies, we had to be guided by the one adopted in the State Variety Testing, as well as the methodology for testing breeding achievements for distinctness, uniformity and stability. They provide for the assessment of the color of the most decorative organs (buds, flowers) according to the international RHS scale, where shades of color are indicated by the corresponding index.

Ornamental apple-tree Michdekor 2

The main advantage of the hybrids we are studying is that, in contrast to the existing varieties of ornamental apple trees, they are capable of forming adventitious roots in the mother liquor of vertical layers.

As a result of a preliminary examination of the hybrid fund, 4 red-leaved forms were identified and studied.

Michdecor 2... The tree is weak, at 10 years of age, 2.2 m high. It starts bearing fruit in the 4th year after 2-year-old seedlings are planted. The crown is dense, spreading, dark red shoots. In spring, when blooming, the leaves have a reddish tint, in summer they turn green. The flowers are large (more than 5 cm in diameter), fragrant, collected in a dense inflorescence of 6 pcs. On the RHS scale, the color of the buds is 71 B, of the petals - 70 C. Abundant flowering. After the harsh winter of 2005/06. the trees were not frozen. The yield is high. Fruits are of late summer ripening (August 20–25 under the conditions of Michurinsk), average weight 60 g, main color is green, integumentary color is crimson blush over the entire surface. Fruits are elongated, resemble ‘Pepin Saffron’ in shape, edible, sour-sweet taste without astringency and bitterness. The average rooting point in the mother liquor of vertical layers is 3.2; the output of layering in the 4th year of operation is 6.8 (including standard 4.2).

Ornamental apple-tree Michdecor 5

Michdecor 5... The tree is semi-dwarf, at the age of 10 it reaches 2.8 m.It starts bearing fruit in the 3rd year after planting 2-year-old seedlings. The crown is dense, round, dark red shoots. In spring, when blooming, the leaves have a reddish tint, in summer they turn green. The flowers are medium (4.5 cm), fragrant, collected in a dense inflorescence of 6 pcs. Coloring of buds - 71 V, petals - 73 A. Abundant flowering. After the harsh winter of 2005/06. the trees were not frozen. The yield is high. Fruits of late summer ripening (August 20-25), average weight 15 g, main color green, integumentary - maroon blush over the entire surface. Fruits are elongated, resemble ‘Pepin Saffron’ in shape, edible, sweetish taste without acid and bitterness. The average rooting point in the mother liquor of vertical layers is 3.0; the output of layering in the 4th year of operation is 8.2 (including standard 4.6).

Ornamental apple-tree Michdekor 6

Michdecor 6... The tree is medium-sized, at the age of 10 it reaches 3.1 m. It begins to bear fruit in the 5th year after planting 2-year-old seedlings. The crown is of medium density, elliptical, dark red shoots. In spring, when blooming, the leaves have a reddish tint, in summer they turn green. The flowers are large (about 5 cm), fragrant, collected in a loose inflorescence of 5 pcs. The color of the buds is 72 V, the petals are 74 V (they are white at the base). Abundant flowering. After the harsh winter of 2005/06. the trees were not frozen. The yield is high. Fruits of late summer ripening (August 20-25), average weight 25 g, main color green, integumentary - crimson blush over the entire surface. The fruit is elongated, barrel-shaped, resembling the 'Kandil Sinap' variety in shape, the taste is bittersweet. The average rooting point in the mother liquor of vertical layers is 3.8; the output of layering in the 4th year of operation 3.3 (including standard 1.5).

Ornamental apple-tree Michdekor 7

Michdecor 7... The tree is semi-dwarf, at the age of 10 it reaches 2.6 m.It begins bearing fruit in the 4th year after planting 2-year-old seedlings. The crown is dense, elliptical, shoots are dark red. In spring, when blooming, the leaves have a reddish tint, in summer they turn green. The flowers are large (more than 5 cm), fragrant, collected in a loose inflorescence of 6 pcs. Coloring of buds - 74 V, petals - 75 C. Abundant flowering. After the harsh winter of 2005/06. the trees were not frozen. The yield is high. Fruits are late-summer ripening (20-25 August), average weight 70 g, the main color is yellow-green, integumentary - a red blush on most of the surface. Fruits are medium-flattened, conical, sweet and sour, tasty. The average rooting point in the mother liquor of vertical layers is 3.7; the output of layering in the 4th year of operation is 3.2 (including standard 2.1).

Literature

1. Isaeva I.S. Decorative apple trees. // Gardener. - 2009. - No. 4. - S. 5-8.

2. Mayevskaya A.M. Apple trees in bloom. // Flora. - 2004. - No. 5. - S. 24-28.

3. Michurin I.V. Compositions. - M .: OGIZ, 1948 .-- T.2.- 620 p.

Photo by authors

The magazine "Floriculture", No. 3, 2013