Before planting daffodils, you need to determine where to grow them. It should be borne in mind that the bulbs will grow in one place for more than one year (the optimal growing period is 4-5 years, but if you wish, you can leave it for a longer period). In this case, the bulbs will grow, one bulb can form a nest of 5-7 bulbs.
Choosing a place to plant daffodils
The landing site is chosen level, protected from strong winds, illuminated by the sun for at least half a day. The varieties with pink and orange crowns retain their color better (do not fade) when there is no bright sun. It has been noticed that in places protected from the wind, daffodils bloom longer. Daffodils also feel good on the slopes of the southern exposure (illuminated by the sun) with a slope of up to 3-5 degrees. Even the space between deciduous trees and at the edge of the trunk circles is suitable for planting (flowering begins before the leaves open, so there is enough light). But do not plant under evergreens or in dense, dense shade. Wet areas, with a high level of groundwater, with soil that is poorly permeable to moisture, flooded when snow melts in spring are unsuitable, bulbs rot with prolonged moisture. The groundwater level should be no higher than 60 cm. Stagnant water leads to the development of fungal diseases, rotting and death of bulbs.
Preparing the soil for planting daffodils
Daffodils can grow in various types of soil, but loamy soils with an acidity of 6.5-7.0 are most suitable. On sandy soils, poor in macro- and microelements, daffodils will bloom for the first time due to previously accumulated nutrients, then the bulbs become smaller, and flowering stops. Sandy soils cool quickly, bulbs are more susceptible to freezing. If your garden has been around for a long time, the soil is sufficiently cultivated and suitable for growing garden flowers, soil preparation will be minimal.
On newly developed areas, it is necessary to remove stones, construction waste, tree roots. In heavy clay soils, you need to add sand (20 kg per square meter), add clay and humus to sandy soils. Organic fertilizers (rotted manure, humus, compost) are applied in advance, at least three months before planting, humus at the rate of 15 kg / m2, rotted manure - 20 kg / m2, while digging the soil to a depth of 25-35 cm. Fresh manure is applied At least one year before planting under previous crops, immediately before planting, it is strictly forbidden to apply fresh manure under daffodils!
For good growth and development, daffodils need a balanced mineral diet.The effect of the applied fertilizers does not appear immediately, the planted bulbs in the first year live off the nutrients accumulated in the previous season. Therefore, the use of fertilizers does not bring immediate results. However, daffodils need macro and micronutrients.
If possible, you need to analyze the soil for acidity and the content of basic elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium). Most of all, daffodils need phosphorus and potassium in the soil. Potassium is used by the plant to make starch and sugar. Root growth is mainly stimulated by the presence of phosphorus, which is also responsible for flowering. Nitrogen is the main tissue-forming element, but its excessive amount is dangerous for the plant. With its excess, the leaf mass grows very quickly, the plant becomes weakened and easily exposed to diseases. Therefore, to improve soil fertility, mineral fertilizers are applied according to the results of soil analysis. You can give only the average rates of pre-planting fertilization: simple superphosphate - 60 g / m2, potassium sulfate - 30 g / m2, ammonium nitrate (when planting) - 10-15 g / m2.
If you plan to plant daffodils in a small area, there is no need to dig up and cultivate a large area. You can remove the topsoil and replace it with specially formulated soil, made by yourself or purchased from a store.
When dividing the nest of daffodils (after digging and preliminary drying), bulbs of different parses are obtained, with one or several vertices (single-vertex and multi-vertex). Only loosely attached bulbs are separated, which “fall off” themselves. Old outer scales are removed, the bulbs remain in a smooth, glossy protective scale. Do not peel the bulb to white scales. The multi-peaked bulbs are interconnected not only by external dry covering scales, but also by juicy white storage scales, the violation of the integrity of which leads to their damage, weakening and death of the bulb.
Daffodil bulbs of different ages differ in size. The largest bulbs are "extra", the smallest are baby bulbs. It is better to plant large bulbs for flowering, small bulbs are good for propagation of valuable varieties (provided that the source of origin of the bulbs is reliable).
With any planting method, the bulb is always oriented with the bottom down. Inverted bulbs, of course, will also sprout, but at the same time they will spend a lot of energy, which is necessary for timely regrowth and good flowering. As a result, such specimens will grow later and will bloom worse than their correctly planted counterparts. The distance between the bulbs is 15-20 cm, between the children - 7-10 cm.
A big "plus" of daffodils, in contrast to many bulbs, is that they are not eaten by mice, since the bulbs and leaves of daffodils contain toxic substances. Therefore, daffodils are sometimes used as a kind of "shield" when planting tulips, small-bulbous, hazel grouses, lilies.
Daffodil planting time
In different regions and climatic zones, the timing of planting daffodils may vary, so there is no single date. For good rooting and subsequent overwintering of the bulbs, you need to be guided by the weather conditions.As soon as the soil temperature drops to + 8 + 10С and lasts about two weeks, you can plant. In central Russia, this is the period from August 15 to September 1. But due to the climate that has changed in recent years, this period can be fully extended until September 15. It is important to meet these deadlines, otherwise the flowering may not come in spring or will not meet your expectations.
Before the soil freezes, the bulbs should have a root system, but no aerial parts should develop. Bulbs planted early and started to grow can freeze slightly from autumn frosts. At high soil temperatures and moisture, the growing roots of the bulbs can rot. Late planting does not promote the rooting of the bulbs, they are more susceptible to freezing and in the spring they give small flowers on low peduncles. If you are late with planting, you can plant the bulbs in October or November, taking advantage of the thaw, but a prerequisite is the shelter of the plantings.
Daffodils harbor during the onset of persistent frosts. Some varieties of daffodils cannot hibernate without shelter, but if possible, it is better to cover all plantings. The covering material is dry foliage, spruce branches, peat, compost, chopped straw, sawdust of hard wood. Can be covered with non-woven covering material, but not with plastic wrap.