This amazing "curly" plant, the aroma of which cannot be confused with any other, belongs to the hyacinth family, and it is named after the Greek youth Hyacinth, who was turned into a flower after death by the god Apollo (according to Greek mythology). It is highly valued for the brightness and tenderness of the color of the flowers, which have a strong and rather heavy aroma.
The ancestor of all garden hyacinths is oriental hyacinth (Hyacinthus orientalis) - grows wild in the Balkans, Asia Minor, Iran, Syria. Many botanists classify hyacinth as a monotypic genera, that is, consisting of one species, having many varieties and garden forms, differing from each other in the height of the peduncle, the timing of flowering, the ability to forcing, the color of the flowers.
Currently, about 400 varieties of hyacinth are known. In modern cultivars, the color of flowers is blue, purple, lilac, pink, yellow, white. Flowers on short pedicels in the axils of the bracts, collected in a brush, sometimes there are up to 75 of them on one peduncle, which is why the plant looks curly. Flowers are waxy, bell-shaped, simple or double. The brushes can be loose or dense, depending on the number of flowers. The leaves of the hyacinth are basal, linear, grooved, stalk-embracing, up to 15–20 cm long. The bulb is large, 4–6 cm in diameter, perennial, it increases in diameter every year, forming new dense scales.
The flowering period is mid-May.
The flowering success of hyacinths is highly dependent on the growing conditions.
Pick-up location... For planting, choose sunny, well-ventilated areas without excess moisture, with light sandy loam, humus-rich soil. Acidic soils must be limed. The soil must be prepared in advance: dug up, remove all weeds, apply organic and mineral fertilizers.
Landing... Hyacinths should be planted in the first decade of October, since they have the shortest rooting period, and if the bulbs are planted early, they will start to grow and die in winter. The bulbs are planted, depending on their size, to a depth of 5–6 cm or 8–10 cm. It is advisable to sprinkle clean dry sand in a thin layer at the bottom of the groove or hole where the bulb will be planted. Landing is sure to shed well. With the onset of the first frost, lightly cover with foliage or spruce branches.
Top dressing... In the spring, after the snow has melted, remove the shelter and scatter mineral fertilizers while the soil is still wet, so that they easily dissolve and help the plants grow stronger after winter. Before flowering and after flowering, you still need to feed the plants.
Watering... In hot weather, watering is necessary, just like in spring, before the flower arrow emerges, so that it is high.
Transfer... If it becomes necessary to dig up, transplant the bulb, then this should be done after the leaves wither and dry out. Clean the dug out bulbs from the ground, dry for 20 days at a temperature of + 25 ° C and store in a dry, well-ventilated room. Before planting, the bulbs are stored at + 17 ... + 18 ° C.
Reproduction of hyacinths
Hyacinths are propagated by bulbs and children, of which very few are formed - 1-2 pieces per year. If, when you dig the bulb, you see small children on it, then do not separate them, but after drying, plant the bulb with the children for growing. Two years later, you can dig up the onion again and separate the already grown children and plant them. They will bloom in two years.
To obtain a large number of children, flower growers use a special technique - the base (bottom) of the bulb is deeply cut crosswise or cut out in the form of a cone. In this way, the growth point of the mother's bulb is destroyed, and the accumulated nutrients are spent on the formation of children.
This operation must be performed immediately after the onion has been dug (July). Select three-, four-year-old, absolutely healthy bulbs.After cutting, powder the slices with crushed coal and place the bulbs upside down in a shaded room, where the temperature should be + 25 ... + 26 ° С, and the humidity should be moderate. After 5-6 weeks, you should start humidifying the air. By the end of the term (2-3 months), up to 20 or more babies are formed on each bulb.
After that, in October, plant the bulbs in the ground, without separating the babies, with an incision upward, to a depth of 12 cm. After 2 years, dig them out and, after drying the babies, separate and plant them for growing.
As you can see, obtaining planting material from hyacinth is a long process and specialized farms are engaged in it.
Relatives of the hyacinth
Other members of the hyacinth family also deserve the attention of flower growers.
Brimer amethyst, or hyacinth amethyst (Brimeura amethystina), grows wild in the Pyrenees in meadows and in the shrub zone of the mountains. The plant is unpretentious, grows in any well-moisturized soil, both in partial shade and in full sun. The leaves are bright green, collected in a rosette. Peduncle up to 20 cm high consists of 20-22 drooping bell-shaped flowers of blue or dark blue color. Blooms in April – May.
False muscari azure, or azure hyacintella, azure hyacinth (Pseudomuscari azureum, Hyacinthella azurea) - a low plant 6–10 cm in height, similar to a muscari. Its homeland is the rocky slopes of Turkey, Cyprus, southern Europe, where it is still found in the wild. Bulbs are small, 3-4 cm in diameter, peduncle height 10-15 cm, leaves are linear, green. Inflorescences are blue or dark blue.
The bulbs should be planted in late September or early October to a depth of 5–8 cm.
Plants grow well only in dry, loose soil, they absolutely cannot stand high humidity. They can grow in one place for 8 or more years. Very well suited for rock gardens and rocky gardens.
Hyacintella, or hyacinth
Inflorescences of hyacintellae are often more similar not to hyacinths, but to Pushkinia, although they are looser and larger. Leaves are linear, folded in a groove and concentrated at the base of plants. The flowers are pitcher or more open bell-funnel-shaped, with a cylindrical tube twice as long as the corolla, white, blue, greenish in different species. Bulbs up to 3 cm in diameter.
We have the most famous 4 types of hyacintella: (Hyacinthella acutiloba), Litvinova (Hyacinthella litwinowii), Pallas (Hyacinthella pallasiana), ash gray (Hyacinthella leucophaea), transcaspian (Hyacinthella transcaspica), but they are all very rare. Good for roller coasters.
Homeland - Europe, North Africa, 12 species in the genus.
Hyacintoides Spanish, or Spanish endymion (Hyacinthoides hispanicus) - the most common type. Height - up to 40 cm, peduncles with 15 drooping, odorless flowers of blue, blue, pink, white color. Blooms in May – June.
Hyacintoides undescribed, or endymion drooping (Hyacinthoides non-scripta). Lily leaves, collected in a rosette, arched peduncle, 20–45 cm long. The flowers are blue, blue, white, collected in a one-sided inflorescence.
Unlike hyacinth, in which flowers are collected in dense, curly, dense inflorescences, in hyacintoids the inflorescences are light, airy. These plants are also good because they easily and quickly multiply by self-sowing. They look good on the site in groups and under shrubs and trees.
Using hyacinths in the garden
In decorative floriculture, hyacinth and related bulbous are used to decorate various flower beds, tree trunks. Plants look especially impressive against the background of undersized flowering crops.
Hyacinth is very good for winter distillation (which I myself became convinced by doing for many years). Plants cut at the stage of blooming of the first lower flowers stand in water for 5-7 days.
About forcing hyacinths - in the articles:
- Forcing hyacinths. Preparing and planting bulbs
- Forcing hyacinths. Conditions for success
Based on the materials of the newspaper "Ural gardener", No. 42, 2018